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- Two young women wearing armbands walk down a street near the town square in the Bolechow ghetto.
Pictured, on the left, is the donor's cousin, Pepcia Diamand, murdered during an Aktion in March 1943, with a friend.
- Shlomo Adler (born Stanislaw Salek Adler) is the son of Abraham Dolek and Sara Adler. He was born on June 16, 1930 in Bolechow, Poland where his father, owned a leather factory and his mother, a WIZO activist, took care of the household. Salek's older sister, Miriam (Musia) was born in 1924. In September 1939, after the Soviets annexed Eastern Poland, they nationalized all private businesses, including Dolek Adler's leather factory. However, he was chosen to administer many of the leather workshops in Bolechow. On June 22, 1941 Germany invaded USSR, and on July 2, 1941 they reached Bolechow. The Germans and local Ukrainian collaborators immediately began the repression of the Jewish community. In the spring of 1942, Dolek Adler was arrested and accused of black market activities. His wife was told to pay a bribe, but after she managed to collect half of the sum, she was denounced for trying to bribe an official and also arrested. A few days later she was led to the train station, and Salek never saw either of his parents again. In June 1942, 2,500 Bolechow Jews were deported to the Belzec death camp. Salek managed to avoid deportation by hiding in a storage room. The Germans then established a Jewish Quarter in town only for Jews with proper work permits. Salek and his cousin Jozek Adler remained in Bolechow working in a wooden barrel factory. His sister Musia worked in a recycling plant. In March 1943 the Germans conducted another deportation Aktion. During this Aktion, Musia, who was 19 years old, was shot and killed, together with her cousin Pepcia Diamand, Pepcia's mother and Jozek's mother. In the beginning of July 1943 Salek heard shooting and fled with his cousin Jozek. They hid for a few days in the nearby marshes and in other locations. Although 80 Jews were killed during the Aktion, the German were unsatisfied with this number and a new commandant, Grzymek, was brought from Lvov. He assembled the remaining Jews and declared that no more Jews will be killed and that they must all stay in a newly built camp. Salek, who was 13 years old, was determined never to enter it and forced his cousin Jozek to flee with him. While escaping they met Mr. Raduchowski who previously promised to prepare a hiding place for one person. Seeing both boys he decided to take them in. Mr. Raduchowski and his wife prepared a small space, hidden behind a false wall. The two boys spent the next 13 months there until August 1944 when the Soviet Red Army liberated the area. Soon after the liberation Salek joined the Polish Army declared himself as a Pole and misstated his age. In June 1946 the new Communist regime arrested him, and accused him, among other things, of collaboration with the Nazis. During the numerous and lengthy interrogations Salek was ready to admit to all the charges, but not to collaboration with the Nazis. He admitted that he was Jewish and a survivor, who lost all the members of his immediate family. The KGB officer severely beat Salek. This incident convinced Salek to rejoin the Jewish community and the need to leave Poland. He joined the Gordonia Zionist youth group in Bielsko Biala, and soon after that he left Poland with false papers. Upon arrival in Paris, a group of survivors boarded the ship Ha'Maapil Ha'Almoni. However, the British forcibly turned back his ship and interned the passengers, including Salek, in a DP camp in Famagusta, Cyprus. In September 1947 Salek finally reached Palestine with the help of Youth Aliyah.
1941 - 1942
- Bolechow, [Lvov] Poland
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- Photo Source:
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
Copyright: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
Provenance: Schlomo Adler
Source Record ID: Collections: 2003.243.1
- Photo Credit:
- United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of Schlomo Adler
Record last modified: 2007-02-23 00:00:00
This page: http://collections.ushmm.org/search/catalog/pa1162427