Murder without hatred : Estonians, the Holocaust, and the problem of collaboration / Anton Weiss-Wendt.
This dissertation explores patters of local collaboration in the Nazi murder of the Jews in Estonia. Unlike in the neighboring Latvia and Lithuania, there were no anti-Jewish pogroms, ghettos, or summary executions in Estonia. Under the rather loose German supervision, the Estonian Security Police apprehended and investigated the so-called communist suspects, including about one thousand Jews, on an individual basis. The level of anti-Semitism in Estonia was traditionally low; a majority of the ordinary Estonians who were called by the police to testify supported individual Jews they knew. Despite that, the Estonian Security Police had routinely charged Jews with “communist activities” or “subversive schemes.” The humiliating Soviet takeover of 1940 did not only display internal weaknesses of the Estonian State but also made a majority population to acquiesce to the loss of independence. Perhaps as many as one-fifth of all Estonian policemen had in one form or another previously collaborated with the Soviet regime. By portraying Jews as communists, those men sought to divert attention from their own past as well as to attribute the collapse of the Estonian State solely to foreign intervention.
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