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Print of the Zülz synagogue brought to the US by German Jewish refugees

Object | Accession Number: 2004.482.2

Woodcut print of the Zülz synagogue made by artist Rudolf Kraft (formerly Kramarczyk, 1885-1945), and owned by the Hirschberg (later Harter) family, German Jewish refugees. The synagogue was located in the town of Zülz and built in 1774, after the previous one had burned down. At the time of construction, the new synagogue was one of the largest in Germany. However, the Jewish population began to decline, and by World War I (1914-1918) there were only a few Jews left in Zülz. The Hirschberg (later Harter) family included Harry, his wife Lenore, and children, Donald and Dorothy. They lived in Breslau, Germany (now Wrocław, Poland), and were descended from Jews who left Zülz. Harry was a doctor, but increasing persecution from the Nazi authorities forced him to flee to Cuba in 1938. On November 9–10, 1938, Nazi leaders unleashed a wave of violence against the German Jewish population. The Kristallnacht pogrom was one of the most violent and widespread acts of persecution. Jews were attacked, and their residences, businesses, and places of worship were destroyed, including the synagogue in Zülz. The rest of Harry’s family escaped to Cuba in 1939, and the entire family immigrated to the United States in 1940. Rudolf Kraft was a German artist and art teacher, known for painting and creating graphics of urban and landscape scenes of his native Upper Silesia region. During World War II, when the Soviet Army was encroaching on the region, Rudolf and his wife committed suicide before the Soviets could occupy the region.

Artwork Title
Synagoge Zülz
1920-1945 May 09
depiction: Biala (Wojewodztwo Opolskie, Poland)
Credit Line
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of Donald H. Harter
Record last modified: 2021-07-22 11:29:50
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