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Print of the Zülz synagogue brought to the US by German Jewish refugees

Object | Accession Number: 2004.482.2

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    Brief Narrative
    Woodcut print of the Zülz synagogue made by artist Rudolf Kraft (formerly Kramarczyk, 1885-1945), and owned by the Hirschberg (later Harter) family, German Jewish refugees. The synagogue was located in the town of Zülz and built in 1774, after the previous one had burned down. At the time of construction, the new synagogue was one of the largest in Germany. However, the Jewish population began to decline, and by World War I (1914-1918) there were only a few Jews left in Zülz. The Hirschberg (later Harter) family included Harry, his wife Lenore, and children, Donald and Dorothy. They lived in Breslau, Germany (now Wrocław, Poland), and were descended from Jews who left Zülz. Harry was a doctor, but increasing persecution from the Nazi authorities forced him to flee to Cuba in 1938. On November 9–10, 1938, Nazi leaders unleashed a wave of violence against the German Jewish population. The Kristallnacht pogrom was one of the most violent and widespread acts of persecution. Jews were attacked, and their residences, businesses, and places of worship were destroyed, including the synagogue in Zülz. The rest of Harry’s family escaped to Cuba in 1939, and the entire family immigrated to the United States in 1940. Rudolf Kraft was a German artist and art teacher, known for painting and creating graphics of urban and landscape scenes of his native Upper Silesia region. During World War II, when the Soviet Army was encroaching on the region, Rudolf and his wife committed suicide before the Soviets could occupy the region.
    Artwork Title
    Synagoge Zülz
    1920-1945 May 09
    depiction: Biala (Wojewodztwo Opolskie, Poland)
    Credit Line
    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of Donald H. Harter
    font, bottom left margin, printed, black ink : Rudolf Kraft
    Artist: Rudolf Kraft
    Subject: Donald Harter M.D.
    Donald Harry Hirschberg (later Harter, 1933-2019) was born in Breslau, Germany (now Wrocław, Poland), to Harry Morton (1899-1957) and Lenore Evelyne Hirschberg (nee Goldman (or Goldmann), 1906-1982). Donald had a younger sister, Dorothy (later Jacobs, b. 1938). Harry was born in Breslau, while Lenore was born in Hindenburg, Germany (now Zabrze, Poland). However, both of their families originated from Zülz, Germany (now Biała Prudnicka, Poland). Harry was a doctor who specialized in neuroscience, while Lenore took care of the children and house. Lenore’s parents, Siegfried (1876-1942) and Käthe (nee Böhm, 1880-1942) also lived in Breslau.

    On January 30, 1933, Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany. Under Hitler, authorities began suppressing the rights and personal freedoms of Jews. Under the new laws, Harry was no longer able to see or treat non-Jewish patients, and the family’s German citizenship was stripped when the Nuremberg Laws were passed in September 1935. In the face of this persecution, Lenore and Harry began searching for ways to leave Germany. In 1938, Harry left for Havana, Cuba, and Lenore, Donald, Dorothy, and the family dog followed in 1939. The family stayed in Cuba until 1940, when they immigrated to the United States with the assistance of Max Morgenstein. They arrived in New York City on August 20, on board the S.S. Imperial. Lenore’s parents, Siegfried and Käthe were unable to escape Germany, and remained in Breslau. They were able to evade an aktion in September 1941, but were captured in a second aktion, on April 13, 1942. They were first taken to the Schießwerder Beer garden and held there for a few days. Siegfried and Käthe were then deported to Lublin, in German-occupied Poland, and from there they were likely taken to either the Sobibor or Belzac killing centers, where they were killed.

    After arriving in the United States, the family Americanized their surname to Harter, and Harry continued to work as a doctor. The family moved to Marcy, New York, and later, to Kew Gardens. Donald graduated from Andrew Jackson high school in 1950. He went on to college, and received his medical degree from the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1957. Donald had a long career as a neurologist, and served in that role as a captain in the Air Force Reserve from 1961 to1963. He was an assistant professor of neurology and microbiology at the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons from 1966 to 1975. Throughout his career, Donald served on professional committees, medical research advisory boards, and editorial boards for professional journals and his work was recognized by several awards, fellowships and honors. Dorothy married and moved to Florida. Donald had four children, and had been married several times.

    Physical Details

    Physical Description
    Black and white woodcut print on faded, cream-colored paper, depicting an image of the Zülz synagogue. The synagogue stands on the corner of two intersecting streets, visible from the front right profile. On the front of the building, there is a large, rectangular section with side buttresses and a pitched roof. Centered in this section, the entryway has an arched double-door with a large arched window above, and a smaller, circular window at the top. The front has molded, decorative columns built into the wall, which flank the doors and window. The front of the roof has a similar, smaller pair of columns flanking the circular window. The main section of the synagogue is large and rectangular, with a roof that mimics the design on the front section. To the right of the synagogue is a rectangular building, with a hip roof and chimney. Behind the synagogue is another two-story building. Hatched and crosshatched lines are used to create shading and texture, as depicted in the sides of the buildings, landscape and sky. The corners of the paper have small, triangular adhesive residue stains that are also visible on the back.
    overall: Height: 8.000 inches (20.32 cm) | Width: 11.125 inches (28.258 cm)
    overall : paper, ink, adhesive
    front, bottom left margin, below image, handwritten, pencil : synagoge Zülz
    front, bottom right margin, below image, handwritten, pencil : Rudolf Kraft

    Rights & Restrictions

    Conditions on Access
    No restrictions on access
    Conditions on Use
    No restrictions on use

    Keywords & Subjects

    Administrative Notes

    The print was donated to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 2004 by Donald H. Harter.
    Record last modified:
    2023-06-21 11:32:07
    This page:

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