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Samuel and Franka Baral papers

Document | Digitized | Accession Number: 2008.117.4

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    Samuel and Franka Baral papers

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    The Samuel and Franka Baral papers consist of biographical information, correspondence, immigration documents, and testimony relating to Samuel Baral and Franka Baral’s experiences fleeing Kraków, internment in a ghetto, going into hiding, and immigrating to Palestine and Australia. The collection includes a certificate of naturalization and a certificate of registration for Australia issued to Franka and travel documents for Samuel to return home as well as a letter from Samuel’s mother, Juda, to the German Compensation Collection Agency and a copy of Jakob Baral’s birth certificate. The collection also includes letters to Franka from Ilonka Nemes, recognized as Righteous Among the Nations, who hid Franka and six children in Hungary.
    inclusive:  circa 1940-1966
    Credit Line
    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of the children and grandchildren of Franka and Samuel Baral
    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of the children and grandchildren of Samuel and Franka Baral
    Collection Creator
    Baral family
    Samuel Baral (b. 1904) was born in Kraków, Poland and married Franciska (Franka) Baral (b. 1906 in Kraków, Poland). They had three children, Aneta (b. 1929), Martin (b. 1932), and Jacob (b. 1935). Samuel ran a fur import business with his father and Franka kept a traditional Jewish home. After the German invasion of Poland in 1939, the family fled and sought refuge with relatives in Rzeszów, Poland and Lviv, Ukraine, but they returned to Kraków without Samuel because they thought that Franka and the children might be safer on their own.

    In 1941, Franka and the children were forced into a ghetto where Samuel joined them. Franka worked outside the ghetto in a factory and was able to help Martin and Jacob escape under the barbed wire fence. They went to the home of their former housekeeper where they stayed for a few months before going to their aunt’s home in the Bochnia ghetto. Franka, Samuel, and Aneta hid in an attic in a different section of the ghetto, until Franka and Aneta escaped to Tarnów, while Samuel went to Płaszow. Samuel survived the Holocaust by being placed on Oskar Schindler’s list. In Tarnów, Franka worked as a seamstress. She made dresses for Aneta and herself and they convinced the guards they were Germans and walked out of Tarnów. They returned to Kraków, looking for Martin and Jacob, and joined them in Bochnia where they hid on the outskirts of town and posed as Catholics.

    In 1943, the Germans turned Bochnia into a labor camp and Franka and the children fled to Hungary. The family was smuggled out in a truck with a false bottom and abandoned in the forest. Franka decided they should separate and walk to Slovakia. She arrived at the border in a day and a half and learned that the children had been arrested. After a few weeks, the family was sold to an underground Jewish organization which arranged for their transportation to Hungary. In July 1943, they arrive in Budapest. Franka obtained lodging at a hotel, but was warned that the Gestapo was searching for them and they fled once again.

    Around this time, Franka arranged to rescue three more children, two of them cousins, from Kraków, where they were in danger of being deported. Franka met Ilona Nemes who agreed to hide her and the six children in her home. This soon become unsafe and Ilona took them to her family’s farm in Nyiregyhaza, Hungary where they lived for the rest of the war.

    After the war Franka obtained an emergency certificate from the British Mission in Romania, granting permission to travel to Istanbul. She and the six children left by train for Bucharest. On June 5, she received permission from the British to leave Romania. With the help of the Red Cross, Samuel located his family and they were reunited in Romania. In 1946, the family immigrated to Palestine where Aneta served in the army during the War for Independence. Around 1948, Martin immigrated to Australia to live with an uncle and the rest of the family joined him in 1953.

    Physical Details

    3 folders
    2 oversize folders
    System of Arrangement
    The Samuel and Franka Baral papers are arranged as a single series.

    Rights & Restrictions

    Conditions on Access
    There are no known restrictions on access to this material.
    Conditions on Use
    The donor, source institution, or a third party has asserted copyright over some or all of these material(s). The Museum does not own the copyright for the material and does not have authority to authorize use. For permission, please contact the rights holder(s).

    Keywords & Subjects

    Administrative Notes

    The children and grandchildren of Samuel and Franciska Baral, Jim Baral, Martin Baral, Steven Baral, and Aneta Weinreich, donated their parents' and grandparents' papers to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 2008. The accessions previously numbered 2008.117.1 and 2008.310.1 have been incorporated into this collection.
    Funding Note
    The accessibility of this collection was made possible by the generous donors to our crowdfunded Save Their Stories campaign.
    Primary Number
    Record last modified:
    2023-04-11 09:50:21
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