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Members of the Zionist youth group "Hashomer Hatzair" board a bus to Germany at the Polish-Czech border.

Photograph | Digitized | Photograph Number: 08222

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    Members of the Zionist youth group "Hashomer Hatzair" board a bus to Germany at the Polish-Czech border.
    Members of the Zionist youth group "Hashomer Hatzair" board a bus to Germany at  the Polish-Czech border.


    Members of the Zionist youth group "Hashomer Hatzair" board a bus to Germany at the Polish-Czech border.
    Prague, [Bohemia] Czechoslovakia
    Variant Locale
    Czech Republic
    Photo Credit
    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of Rose Guterman Zar
    Event History
    Between July 1945 and May 1948 approximately 250,000 Jewish Holocaust survivors fled from eastern Europe to displaced persons' camps in Germany, Austria and Italy, in what was the largest organized, illegal, mass movement in modern times. Both the movement and the organization that directed its flow are known by the name Bricha [flight]. The Bricha was born when groups of Zionist partisan survivors from eastern Europe, who had attempted unsuccessfully to reach Palestine via Romania, made contact with Jewish Brigade troops stationed in Italy. The soldiers offered them the possibility (although limited and illegal) for reaching Palestine via Italy. Together they established the Bricha in Poland, an organization that quickly came under the direction of Haganah (Jewish underground) emissaries from Palestine. Bricha guides led groups of survivors on specially laid out routes from Poland to Italy and Germany. The transit expenses were covered by the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, which also provided food and shelter along the routes. Generally, the Soviet authorities turned a blind eye to the illegal migration, the British were hostile, and the Americans were accepting, because they could not use force to stop the flow. The largest wave of the Bricha occurred in the two months following the Kielce pogrom (July 4, 1946) in which 42 Jews were killed in the wake of a ritual murder charge. Over 90,000 holocaust survivors fled in a movement so sudden that the organization could not contain the flow. The goal of the survivors was to reach the American zone of occupation, where they could seek shelter in DP camps until they were able to find the means to emigrate to Palestine or the New World.

    Rights & Restrictions

    Photo Source
    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
    Copyright: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
    Provenance: Rose Guterman Zar

    Keywords & Subjects

    Administrative Notes

    Rose Zar (born Rose Guterman) was born July 27,1923 in Piotrkow Trybunalski. After the German invasion Rose lived in the Piotrkow ghetto until April 1940, when she fled to Warsaw. There she obtained false papers in the name of Wanda Gajda. For a time Rose served as a courier for the Zionist underground. In December 1942 she moved to Krakow, where she found work as a nanny in the home of Kurt Albers, a German SS officer. She remained in Krakow until the liberation. After the war Rose married a fellow survivor from Piotrkow, Meyer Zarnowiecki (later Zar), who had been interned in Buchenwald and Theresienstadt after leaving the Piotrkow ghetto. As displaced persons the couple lived and worked together at the Lindenfels children's home in Germany, where they helped prepare Jewish children for immigration to Palestine.
    Record last modified:
    2004-05-27 00:00:00
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