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International Military Tribunal defendants eat lunch during a pause in the trial.

Photograph | Digitized | Photograph Number: 10456

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    International Military Tribunal defendants eat lunch during a pause in the trial.
    International Military Tribunal defendants eat lunch during a pause in the trial.

Pictured counterclockwise from the front left are: Hermann Goering, Karl Doenitz, Walther Funk, Baldur von Schirach, and Alfred Rosenberg.

    Overview

    Caption
    International Military Tribunal defendants eat lunch during a pause in the trial.

    Pictured counterclockwise from the front left are: Hermann Goering, Karl Doenitz, Walther Funk, Baldur von Schirach, and Alfred Rosenberg.
    Photographer
    Charles Alexander
    Date
    1945 November 20 - 1946 October 01
    Locale
    Nuremberg, [Bavaria] Germany
    Variant Locale
    Nurnberg
    Photo Credit
    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of Harry S. Truman Library
    Event History
    The International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg opened in the fall of 1945, but by the winter of 1942, the governments of the Allied powers had already announced their determination to punish Nazi war criminals. On December 17, 1942, the leaders of the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union issued the first joint declaration officially noting the mass murder of European Jewry and resolving to prosecute those responsible for violence against civilian populations. Though some political leaders advocated for summary executions instead of trials, eventually the Allies decided to hold an International Military Tribunal so that, in the words of Cordell Hull, "a condemnation after such a proceeding will meet the judgment of history, so that the Germans will not be able to claim that an admission of war guilt was extracted from them under duress." The October 1943 Moscow Declaration, signed by U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet leader Josef Stalin, stated that at the time of an armistice persons deemed responsible for war crimes would be sent back to those countries in which the crimes had been committed and adjudged according to the laws of the nation concerned. Major war criminals, whose crimes could be assigned no particular geographic location, would be punished by joint decisions of the Allied governments.

    The trials of leading German officials before the International Military Tribunal (IMT), the best known of the postwar war crimes trials, formally opened in Nuremberg on November 20, 1945, only six and a half months after Germany surrendered. Each of the four Allied nations -- the United States, Britain, the Soviet Union, and France -- supplied a judge and a prosecution team. Lord Justice Geoffrey Lawrence of Great Britain served as the court's presiding judge. The trial's rules were the result of delicate reconciliations of the Continental and Anglo-American judicial systems. A team of translators provided simultaneous translations of all proceedings in four languages: English, French, German, and Russian. After much debate, 24 defendants were selected to represent a cross-section of Nazi diplomatic, economic, political, and military leadership. Adolf Hitler, Heinrich Himmler, and Joseph Goebbels never stood trial,having committed suicide before the end of the war. The IMT decided not to try them posthumously so as not to create an impression that they might still be alive. In fact, only 21 defendants appeared in court. German industrialist Gustav Krupp was included in the original indictment, but he was elderly and in failing health, and it was decided in preliminary hearings to exclude him from the proceedings. Nazi Party secretary Martin Bormann was tried and convicted in absentia, and Robert Ley committed suicide on the eve of the trial.

    The IMT indicted the defendants on charges of crimes against peace, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. The IMT defined crimes against humanity as "murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation...or persecutions on political, racial, or religious grounds." A fourth charge of conspiracy was added both to cover crimes committed under domestic Nazi law before the start of World War II and so that subsequent tribunals would have jurisdiction to prosecute any individual belonging to a proven criminal organization. Therefore the IMT also indicted several Nazi organizations deemed to be criminal, namely the Reich Cabinet, the Leadership Corps of the Nazi Party, the Elite Guard (SS), the Security Service (SD), the Secret State Police (Gestapo), the Stormtroopers (SA), and the General Staff and High Command of the German Armed Forces.

    The defendants were entitled to a legal counsel of their choosing. Over 400 visitors attended the proceedings each day, as well as 325 correspondents representing 23 different countries. American chief prosecutor Robert Jackson decided to argue his case primarily on the basis of mounds of documents written by the Nazis themselves rather than eyewitness testimony so that the trial could not be accused of relying on biased or tainted testimony. Testimony presented at Nuremberg revealed much of what we know about the Holocaust including the details of the Auschwitz death machinery, the destruction of the Warsaw ghetto, and the estimate of six million Jewish victims.

    The judges delivered their verdict on October 1, 1946. Agreement among three out of four judges was needed for conviction. Twelve defendants were sentenced to death, among them Joachim von Ribbentrop, Hans Frank, Alfred Rosenberg, and Julius Streicher. They were hanged, cremated in Dachau, and their ashes were dropped in the Isar River. Hermann Goering escaped the hangman's noose by committing suicide the night before. The IMT sentenced three defendants to life imprisonment and four to prison terms ranging from 10 to 20 years. It acquitted three of the defendants.

    https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/article/international-military-tribunal-at-nuremberg.

    Rights & Restrictions

    Photo Source
    Harry S. Truman Library
    Copyright: Public Domain
    Provenance: Robert Jackson
    Source Record ID: 72-865
    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
    Copyright: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
    Provenance: Robert Kempner
    Source Record ID: Collections: 2001.62/Nuremberg 28: F1

    Keywords & Subjects

    Administrative Notes

    Biography
    Hermann Goering (1893-1946), Commander-in-Chief of the Luftwaffe, President of the Reichstag, Reich Marshal, and initially Hitler's chosen successor. Goering first gained recognition as a World War I fighter ace. He joined the NSDAP in 1922. In 1923 he was wounded in the Beer Hall Putsch and forced to flee Germany for four years, during which time he developed a morphine addiction. He became a valuable asset to Hitler, using his connections in the army and business to gain support for the NSDAP. Upon Hitler's appointment to the Chancellorship, Goering was rewarded with high positions, including Commander-in-Chief of the Prussian Police and Gestapo, and Commissioner for Aviation. Goering set up the first concentration camps and organized the Gestapo with Heinrich Himmler and Reinhard Heydrich. In 1935 he was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Air Force and Plenipotentiary of the Four Year Plan in 1936. It was Goering who instructed Heydrich to prepare a "General Solution" to the Jewish problem after Kristallnacht in November 1938. In June 1940 he was named Reich Marshal, a specially created position, reflecting the high esteem in which he was held by Hitler. After using the Air Force with great effectiveness in Poland and France, Goering confidently sent German air power into the Battle of Britain only to fail because of strategic errors. Hitler never forgave Goering for the defeat and began to lose faith in the Air Force. Throughout the war, Goering was increasingly under attack from Martin Bormann, Joseph Goebbels, Albert Speer, and Heinrich Himmler. In the last weeks of the war Hitler dismissed Goering from all his posts after he fled to Bavaria. Goering was subseqently captured by the Allies and put on trial before the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg, where he emerged as the dominant figure among the accused Nazis, sometimes successfully defending himself against the prosecution. Nevertheless, he was found guilty of conspiracy to wage war, crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, and war crimes, for which he was sentenced to death. On October 15, 1946, just two hours before his execution, he committed suicide by swallowing a cyanide capsule that he had managed to smuggle into prison.

    [Sources: Wistrich, Robert. "Who's Who in Nazi Germany." MacMillan, 1982; Zentner, Christian. "Encyclopedia of the Third Reich." MacMillan, 1991.]

    Alfred Rosenberg (1893-1946) Nazi racial theorist who became head of the Nazi party's Foreign Affairs Department during the Third Reich. Born in Tallinn, Estonia, Rosenberg was the son of an Estonian mother and Lithuanian father, both of whom were of German extraction. He studied engineering in Riga and architecture in Moscow before fleeing to the West after the Bolshevik Revolution. In 1918 he settled in Munich, where he became active both in White Russian émigré circles and in an ultra-nationalist German society. Rosenberg joined the NSDAP in 1919 and met Hitler soon after. Hitler was impressed by Rosenberg's breadth of knowledge and attracted to his virulently anti-Semitic, anti-Bolshevik and anti-Masonic worldview. In 1923 Rosenberg became editor of the NSDAP newspaper, the "Voelkische Beobachter," and in November of that year played an active role in the failed Beer Hall Putsch. During the next few years he established himself as the leading theoretician of Nazi racism. His ideas received their fullest expression in his "Myth of the Twentieth Century" (1930), which posited that the whole of world history is the history of races, that the Germnas are the master-race of Aryans, and that Judaism and Christianity are the mortal enemies of the true German spirit. Rosenberg's arrogance and zealous, pedantic style alienated many of his fellow Nazi leaders, especially Joseph Goebbels. As a result, he was repeatedly passed over for major posts such as Foreign Minister. From 1933 to 1945 he served as head of the inconsequential NSDAP Foreign Affairs Department. In 1939 Rosenberg established in Frankfurt his Institute for the Investigation of the Jewish Question, whose mission was the looting of European Jewish cultural treasures. A special unit called the Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg (Rosenberg Task Force) was set up in the fall of 1940 to confiscate such material and transport it to Germany. In July 1941, following the German invasion of the Soviet Union, Rosenberg was appointed Minister of the Occupied Eastern Territories. Though he came to question the wisdom of the Germanization policy pursued by the Nazi leadership in the Eastern Territories, he faithfully carried out his duties, including the extermination of Jews and the deportation of Soviet civilians to the Reich for forced labor. After the war Rosenberg was tried before the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. Following his conviction he was hanged in Nuremberg on October 16, 1946.

    [Source: Wistrich, Robert. "Who's Who in Nazi Germany." MacMillan, 1982; Zentner, Christian. "Encyclopedia of the Third Reich." MacMillan, 1991.]
    Record last modified:
    2004-05-20 00:00:00
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