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Survivors of a malina, or bunker, in the Kovno ghetto.

Photograph | Digitized | Photograph Number: 81135

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    Survivors of a malina, or bunker, in the Kovno ghetto.
    Survivors of a malina, or bunker, in the Kovno ghetto.  

This bunker, under the Block C apartment complex was one of the most sophisticated in the ghetto, and one of the only to hold.  Built by the engineers Feivel Goldschmidt and Indursky, it included its own ventilation system.  Thirty four people hid in it for a total iof 38 days.  

Standing on the left, third from the top is Rabbi Ephraim Oshry, behind him is Haim Leibowitz.  Seated is the dentist Bat Sheva Schmidt. Others hidden in this bunker include Basya Lipman, Mrs. Chodosh, Ida Schalansky and her children Moishe and Noachka, Yosha the butcher, Italya Garber, Berel Penkinsky. Chaim ?, Doniyel ?, Hershel ?, Mr. Dinner, Lucy Cess and Hillel Birger.

Prior to the liberation by the Soviets, approximately 6,000 Jews were deported to concentration camps in Germany.  Others went into hiding within the ghetto. The Germans used fire bombs, smoke grenades and dogs to chase people out.  Approximately 100 Jews survived in malinas or bunkers , whereas thousands either burned to death or were shot trying to escape.

    Overview

    Caption
    Survivors of a malina, or bunker, in the Kovno ghetto.

    This bunker, under the Block C apartment complex was one of the most sophisticated in the ghetto, and one of the only to hold. Built by the engineers Feivel Goldschmidt and Indursky, it included its own ventilation system. Thirty four people hid in it for a total iof 38 days.

    Standing on the left, third from the top is Rabbi Ephraim Oshry, behind him is Haim Leibowitz. Seated is the dentist Bat Sheva Schmidt. Others hidden in this bunker include Basya Lipman, Mrs. Chodosh, Ida Schalansky and her children Moishe and Noachka, Yosha the butcher, Italya Garber, Berel Penkinsky. Chaim ?, Doniyel ?, Hershel ?, Mr. Dinner, Lucy Cess and Hillel Birger.

    Prior to the liberation by the Soviets, approximately 6,000 Jews were deported to concentration camps in Germany. Others went into hiding within the ghetto. The Germans used fire bombs, smoke grenades and dogs to chase people out. Approximately 100 Jews survived in malinas or bunkers , whereas thousands either burned to death or were shot trying to escape.
    Photographer
    George Kadish/Zvi Kadushin
    Date
    September 1944
    Locale
    Kaunas, Lithuania
    Variant Locale
    Kauen
    Kovno
    Kowno
    Photo Credit
    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of George Kadish/Zvi Kadushin

    Rights & Restrictions

    Photo Source
    USHMM (Restricted)
    Copyright: Exclusively with provenance
    Provenance: George Kadish/Zvi Kadushin

    Keywords & Subjects

    Record last modified:
    2003-10-23 00:00:00
    This page:
    https:​/​/collections.ushmm.org​/search​/catalog​/pa11910

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