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Survivors of a malina, or bunker, in the Kovno ghetto.

Photograph | Photograph Number: 81135

Survivors of a malina, or bunker, in the Kovno ghetto.

This bunker, under the Block C apartment complex was one of the most sophisticated in the ghetto, and one of the only to hold. Built by the engineers Feivel Goldschmidt and Indursky, it included its own ventilation system. Thirty four people hid in it for a total iof 38 days.

Standing on the left, third from the top is Rabbi Ephraim Oshry, behind him is Haim Leibowitz. Seated is the dentist Bat Sheva Schmidt. Others hidden in this bunker include Basya Lipman, Mrs. Chodosh, Ida Schalansky and her children Moishe and Noachka, Yosha the butcher, Italya Garber, Berel Penkinsky. Chaim ?, Doniyel ?, Hershel ?, Mr. Dinner, Lucy Cess and Hillel Birger.

Prior to the liberation by the Soviets, approximately 6,000 Jews were deported to concentration camps in Germany. Others went into hiding within the ghetto. The Germans used fire bombs, smoke grenades and dogs to chase people out. Approximately 100 Jews survived in malinas or bunkers , whereas thousands either burned to death or were shot trying to escape.

George Kadish/Zvi Kadushin
September 1944
Kaunas, Lithuania
Variant Locale
Photo Credit
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of George Kadish/Zvi Kadushin
Record last modified: 2003-10-23 00:00:00
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