The pride and price of remembrance : an empirical view of transpersonal post-Holocaust trauma and associated transpersonal elements in the third generation / by Mark Yoslow.
This empirical, quantitative and qualitative study of 58 grandchildren of Holocaust Survivors (21 men/37 women) sought a transgenerational "fingerprint" of Holocaust trauma. The study employed a pragmatic, integrative, quantitative, and qualitative approach including heuristic, Jungian, intuitive, and cognitive methods of inquiry to reveal the impact of exposures to the aftermath of Holocaust trauma. The study battery included a demographic survey and questionnaire containing a cultural complex scale (CCS), the Life Changes Inventory-Revised (LCI-R), Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2), and the Heartland Forgiveness Scale (HFS). Clusters were established by self-selection from 9 criterion items defining response to the Holocaust. Cluster analysis established 3 clusters for ANOVA across all of the instrument subscales, and revealed clusters 2 and 3 marked "True" a criterion item that addressed transformation of the Holocaust. The CCS score across the three clusters (F = 13.89, p < .001) demonstrated that a higher CCS score was related to not choosing transformation. Responses to the 46 questions of the CCS were subjected to correlation and ANOVA. Significant correlations with the CCS were (a) HFS self forgiveness (p < .01) and forgiveness for situations out of one's control (p < .05); (b) LCI-R Concern for Others (p < .001); (c) PDS Avoidance, Arousal, Arousal Symptom Severity (p < .01); and (d) STAXI-2 T-Ang/T scale (p < .01). This sample transgenerationally mirrored the intensity of their grandparents' Holocaust experience ( p < .01). Linear regression revealed that as the CCS score increased, forgiveness decreased. Conclusions were that a post-Holocaust trauma manifested in response to witnessing the aftermath of Holocaust trauma in one's family combined with knowledge of the physical history of the event could be quantified as a "fingerprint" in the absence of transformation. Participants in this study who had experienced transformation of post-Holocaust trauma manifested greater forgiveness than participants who had not transformed the trauma.
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