Swords or shields? : implementing and subverting the final solution in Nazi-occupied Europe / by Ethan J. Hollander.
This dissertation explains why levels of Jewish victimization varied among Nazi-occupied countries during World War II. I show that the 'success' of the German genocide program depended most importantly upon the relationship between Germany and each occupied country. I argue that where German rule was direct, its implementation of the Final Solution was unhindered, and therefore more effective. On the other hand, where Germany ruled through collaborators, the precise implementation of genocidal policies was the result of complex bargaining and negotiations: In return for their loyal cooperation in military or economic policy, collaborators could often get away with partial or simply 'unenthusiastic' implementation of the Final Solution. This was often a major factor in reducing rates of Jewish victimization.
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