Ideology vs. reality : youth Aliyah and the rescue of Jewish children during the Holocaust era, 1933-45 / Sandra Berliant Kadosh.
Youth Aliyah was established in 1932 by Recha Freier, to bring German Jewish youth to Palestine for agricultural training. Henrietta Szold was appointed head of the Jerusalem Office of Youth Aliyah in November 1933, and was assisted by Hans Beyth and Georg Landauer. During 1933-45, Youth Aliyah brought fifteen thousand Jewish youth to Palestine from Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland and other countries. This study shows that, during the Holocaust era, Youth Aliyah failed to adapt its program to the changing needs of Jewish youth, and also failed to implement significant rescue activity. The insistence of the Jerusalem Office on the proper selection of candidates, the reluctance of the Jerusalem Office to expend funds for the transportation of youth to Palestine or their maintenance in neutral countries in Europe, and the refusal of the Office to circumvent British regulations, hindered the rescue of Jewish youth. The British government, while granting a number of concessions to Youth Aliyah, issued far fewer certificates than could have been utilized. Youth Aliyah activists in Europe disagreed with the policies of the Jerusalem Office and were willing to use illegal measures to save Jewish youth. Hadassah, the Women's Zionist Organization in America that supported Youth Aliyah, also advocated greater flexibility. The kibbutzim that received the youth gave preference to candidates affiliated with left-wing youth movements, and pressured the youth to adopt the kibbutz ideology. Religious youth who arrived in non-religious kibbutzim were pressured to abandon their religious observance. The arrival of the Teheran children in 1943, sparked a major controversy regarding the education of religious children in Youth Aliyah.
Record last modified: 2018-05-29 16:28:00
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