Anger expression and sadness in children of Holocaust survivors / by Mark L. Stein.
The primary purpose of this study was to consider whether Jewish Children of Holocaust Survivors manage feelings of anger differently than children of Jewish immigrants whose parents did not experience the Holocaust. This question was derived from the literature on Holocaust survivors and their children, which suggested special issues in expression of affect, especially anger. A secondary purpose of this study was to determine whether sadness associated with depression would be the result of anger turned inward against the self which was originally postulated by Sigmund Freud. One hundred and three individuals participated in this study. In order to examine the relationship between anger expression and sadness, it was necessary to induce anger in participants. Participants were randomly assigned to either an anger mood induction which was the Autobiographical Recollection Technique (Mosak & Dreikurs, 1973) or the neutral mood induction (a geography reading). The Visual Analogue Mood Scale (Hayes & Patterson, 1921) was administered before and after the mood induction to examine the change in levels of anger and sadness as a result of the anger and neutral mood induction. The Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist - Revised (Zuckerman & Lubin, 1985) was administered before and after the mood induction in order to measure levels of sadness before and after the anger and neutral mood induction. Participants were administered the Defense Mechanism Inventory (Gleser & Ihilevich, 1969) to determine their anger expression style. All participants were given the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (Crowne & Marlowe, 1960) and a demographic questionnaire prepared by the author. All hypotheses were testing using ANOVAs. The effect of anger mood induction measured by the Visual Analogue Mood Scale demonstrated that there were significant differences in anger and sadness between those participants who received the anger mood induction and those who received the neutral mood induction. The central hypothesis of this study was that among those who received the anger mood induction and were internal with their anger, children of Holocaust survivors would report more sadness than children of Jewish immigrants after anger was induced. The results demonstrated limited support for this hypothesis. Internalized anger expression style did not lead to more anger-based sadness. The results from this study provides some valuable information for the understanding the potential development of sadness in non-clinical sample of children of Holocaust survivors.
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