Transgenerational effects of the Holocaust : problematic anger in female children of Holocaust survivors / by Gayle S. Brodzki.
This study explored problematic anger and its related constructs, depression and somatization, in 66 adult female American children of Holocaust survivors (COS) as compared to their 66 American Jewish counterparts (controls). The core hypothesis was that COS over-internalize their anger because as children they repressed their anger for fear of causing their parents more distress. Participants completed the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI), the Depression and Somatization subscales of the SCL-90-R, a qualitative questionnaire developed by the researcher, as well as a demographic questionnaire. On the STAXI, significant differences were found on the Trait Anger scale and the Trait Anger/Angry Reaction subscale. Although significant differences were not found between the 2 groups on Anger-In, the results approached significance, with COS scoring higher than controls on this dimension. There were no significant differences on State Anger, Trait Anger/Angry Temperament, Anger-Out, Anger-Control, and Anger Expression. No significant differences were found between COS and the control group for either the depression or somatization variables. Conflictual findings were revealed with the qualitative measure as COS reported repressing their anger more frequently than controls in certain interpersonal contexts whereas in other situations they did not. Significant results also revealed that participants in therapy reported a higher level of Trait Anger/Angry Temperament than participants with no therapy experience. Another finding was that, in comparing the levels of depression between those COS with 1 or both parents in the Holocaust, differences between them approached significance, as COS with 2 survivor parents reported a higher level of depression. Additionally, results revealed that, among COS with 2 survivor parents, there is a trend towards higher levels of somatization than those with 1 survivor parent. No significant differences were found between COS whose 1 survivor parent was their mother or father on any of the STAXI scales or Depression and Somatization subscales of the SCL-90-R. Based on the results of this study, the divergent and complex ways COS express their anger is highlighted.
Record last modified: 2018-05-24 14:01:00
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