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Frank M. Holocaust testimony (HVT-1294) interviewed by Phyllis O. Ziman Tobin, Brenda Steifel, and Joanne Weiner Rudof,

Oral History | Fortunoff Collection ID: HVT-1294

Videotape testimony of Frank M., who was born in Łódź, Poland in 1911. He recalls his brother's emigration to France in 1926; antisemitic incidents while playing soccer; marriage in 1936; briefly visiting Algeria in 1936; the birth of twin daughters in April 1939; draft into the Polish army in August; German invasion; discharge in Zamość; escape from a train in Kovelʹ; fleeing to L'viv in the Soviet zone; working in a bakery until 1941; German invasion; hiding with assistance from a Polish woman; using false papers; joining his family in the Warsaw ghetto in December 1941; shock at the prevalent death and starvation; escaping to L'viv, then the Kolomyi︠a︡ ghetto; traveling as a money smuggler between Kolomyi︠a︡ and Warsaw; smuggling his family out of the Warsaw ghetto in 1942; traveling with them to L'viv, then, with assistance from a Polish woman, to Cze̜stochowa; hiding with his family in Olsztyn until 1944, posing as Catholics; liberation by Soviet troops; their return to Łódź; and emigration to Sweden in September 1946, then the United States. Mr. M. discusses the importance of luck to their survival; the many non-Jews who helped; and a priest in Olsztyn who saved eight Jewish families.

Author/Creator
M., Frank, 1911-
Published
New York, N.Y. : Fortunoff Video Archive for Holocaust Testimonies, 1989
Interview Date
November 11, 1989 and December 4, 1989.
Locale
Poland
Soviet Union
Warsaw
Ukraine
Kolomyi︠a︡.
Łódź (Poland)
Warsaw (Poland)
Zamość (Poland)
Olsztyn (Województwo Warmińsko-Mazurskie, Poland)
Kovelʹ (Ukraine)
Algeria
L'viv (Ukraine)
Częstochowa (Poland)
Sweden
Language
English
Copies
3 copies: 3/4 in. master; 3/4 in. dub; and 1/2 in. VHS with time coding.
Cite As
Frank M. Holocaust Testimony (HVT-1294). Fortunoff Video Archive for Holocaust Testimonies, Yale University Library.