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Frank M. Holocaust testimony (HVT-1294) interviewed by Phyllis O. Ziman Tobin, Brenda Steifel, and Joanne Weiner Rudof,

Oral History | Fortunoff Collection ID: HVT-1294

Videotape testimony of Frank M., who was born in Łódź, Poland in 1911. He recalls his brother's emigration to France in 1926; antisemitic incidents while playing soccer; marriage in 1936; briefly visiting Algeria in 1936; the birth of twin daughters in April 1939; draft into the Polish army in August; German invasion; discharge in Zamość; escape from a train in Kovelʹ; fleeing to L'viv in the Soviet zone; working in a bakery until 1941; German invasion; hiding with assistance from a Polish woman; using false papers; joining his family in the Warsaw ghetto in December 1941; shock at the prevalent death and starvation; escaping to L'viv, then the Kolomyi︠a︡ ghetto; traveling as a money smuggler between Kolomyi︠a︡ and Warsaw; smuggling his family out of the Warsaw ghetto in 1942; traveling with them to L'viv, then, with assistance from a Polish woman, to Cze̜stochowa; hiding with his family in Olsztyn until 1944, posing as Catholics; liberation by Soviet troops; their return to Łódź; and emigration to Sweden in September 1946, then the United States. Mr. M. discusses the importance of luck to their survival; the many non-Jews who helped; and a priest in Olsztyn who saved eight Jewish families.

M., Frank, 1911-
New York, N.Y. : Fortunoff Video Archive for Holocaust Testimonies, 1989
Interview Date
November 11, 1989 and December 4, 1989.
Soviet Union
Łódź (Poland)
Warsaw (Poland)
Zamość (Poland)
Olsztyn (Województwo Warmińsko-Mazurskie, Poland)
Kovelʹ (Ukraine)
L'viv (Ukraine)
Częstochowa (Poland)
3 copies: 3/4 in. master; 3/4 in. dub; and 1/2 in. VHS with time coding.
Cite As
Frank M. Holocaust Testimony (HVT-1294). Fortunoff Video Archive for Holocaust Testimonies, Yale University Library.