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Toby Z. Holocaust testimony (HVT-2891) interviewed by Tina Weinberger and Kathy McIntyre,

Oral History | Fortunoff Collection ID: HVT-2891

Videotape testimony of Toby Z., who was born in Ulanów, Poland in 1918. She recounts her mother's death; her father's remarriage; a good relationship with her stepmother; the births of five siblings; moving to Tarnów; increasing antisemitism; German invasion in September 1939; ghettoization; forced labor outside the ghetto as a seamstress; smuggling food; deportation of her family except her older brother; her deportation to Płaszów; public hangings of food smugglers; transfer to Skarżysko-Kamienna; slave labor with a poisonous chemical in a munitions factor; assistance from other prisoners and a German supervisor when she had typhus; transfer to Liepzig; a German worker bringing her food; fasting on Yom Kippur; a death march in March 1945; liberation by Soviet troops; assistance from the Red Cross; fearing rape by Soviet soldiers; traveling to Częstochowa, then Łódź; meeting her future husband; marriage in June; moving to the Wolfratshausen displaced persons camp; recovering for a year from tuberculosis in a sanatorium and a home near Munich; a joyous reunion with a cousin; the births of two children; and emigration to the United States in 1950. Mrs. Z. discusses the importance to her survival of maintaining faith and hope.

Z., Toby, 1918-
San Antonio, Tex. : Children of the Holocaust-Second Generation of San Antonio, 1990
Interview Date
September 9, 1990.
Tarnów (Województwo Małopolskie)
Ulanów (Województwo Podkarpackie, Poland)
Tarnów (Województwo Małopolskie, Poland)
Łódź (Poland)
Częstochowa (Poland)
2 copies: 3/4 in. dub; and 1/2 in. VHS with time coding.
Cite As
Toby Z. Holocaust Testimony (HVT-2891). Fortunoff Video Archive for Holocaust Testimonies, Yale University Library.