Clara M. Holocaust testimony (HVT-3348) interviewed by Nathan Beyrak and Rachel Jadaio
- Tel Aviv, Israel : Fortunoff Video Archive for Holocaust Testimonies, 1991
- Interview Date
- July 9, July 16, and July 23, 1991.
- 2 copies: 3/4 in. dub; and 1/2 in. VHS with time coding.
- Cite As
- Clara M. Holocaust Testimony (HVT-3348). Fortunoff Video Archive for Holocaust Testimonies, Yale University Library.
Videotape testimony of Clara M., who was born in Rzeszów, Poland (then Russia) in 1915, one of four children. She recalls her father's work as a Hebrew educator and his strong Zionist commitment; attending Polish school; antisemitic harassment; her leadership role in Hashomer Hatzair; attending university in Warsaw; interning at Janusz Korczak's orphanage; her older sister's emigration to Palestine in 1938; directing a Zionist summer camp in Zakopane in 1939; German invasion; walking to Rzeszów via Kraków; futile attempts to escape to the Soviet zone; forced labor with her sister; escaping to Lʹviv; communicating with her family via the Red Cross; traveling to Kaunus and Vilna; sending food to her parents; returning to Lʹviv; marriage; anti-Jewish violence, including public hangings; learning of her father's death; German invasion in June 1941; ghettoization; forced labor with her husband; her mother-in-law's deportation; hiding during round-ups; escaping to the “Aryan” sector; moving to Warsaw using false papers; bringing her sister and mother there with assistance from a non-Jew; assisting the ghetto underground; visiting the ghetto once; observing the uprising; her sister's move to a farm; the Polish uprising; fleeing to Konstancin-Jeziorna; liberation by Soviet troops; traveling to Łódź, Rzeszów, Bratislava, Hungary, and Bucharest; and preparing survivors for emigration to Palestine as part of a Zionist group that included Yitzhak Zuckerman and Abba Kovner. Ms. M. discusses Korczak's child development theories and practices; her brother's arrest and execution; transferring her father's remains to Israel; attending a reunion of Korczak's students in Poland; and negative stereotypes of survivors in Israel resulting in not sharing her story, although she did with her children.