Advanced Search

Learn About The Holocaust

Special Collections

My Saved Research




Skip to main content

German Rentenbank, 1 Rentenmark note, acquired by a Polish Jewish survivor

Object | Accession Number: 2014.426.3

Rentenbank note, valued at 1 Rentenmark, acquired by Regina Zak Goldwag or her daughter Halina while in Germany during or after World War II. The money was distributed for use in Germany from January 1937 to 1948. Regina and her two children, Halina and Ludwik, were living in Warsaw when the German army invaded Poland, on September 1, 1939. Ludwik soon left to join the Polish army, but after Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned Poland, he got stuck behind the Soviet border. In October 1940, Regina and Halina were forced to relocate to Warsaw’s newly established Jewish ghetto. In the summer of 1942, they were introduced to someone who could smuggle them out of the ghetto. After escaping the ghetto, they lived on a farm in the countryside for several months until they began running out of money. They then returned to the city and began working as housemaids under the false names of Jadwiga and Halina Orlowska. During the 1944 Warsaw Uprising, Regina and Halina were captured by the Germans. They were imprisoned together as non-Jewish Polish nationals and deported to forced labor camps near Leipzig, Germany. In Germany, they worked at the Meier & Weichelt armaments factory, and then the Dr. Gaspary & Co. factory, making airplane parts. Following liberation in April 1945, the two women went to the Göppingen displaced persons (DP) camp, where they learned Ludwik had survived the war. In May 1946, Halina and Regina were able to immigrate on the first transport of refugees to the United States.

issue:  1937 January 30
publication/distribution:  1937 January 30-1945
issue: Germany
Exchange Media
Credit Line
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of Annlee Herbstman, Bert Rosenberg, and Mark Rosenberg
Record last modified: 2022-02-28 14:11:24
This page: