Advanced Search

Learn About The Holocaust

Special Collections

My Saved Research




Skip to main content

Vor dem Bade

Object | Accession Number: 2014.470.2

Painted porcelain figurine of a woman in a swimsuit, taken in 1945 from Adolf Hitler’s Prince Regent Square apartment in Munich, Germany, by Daniel Jacobson, a Jewish-American soldier. On April 30, 1945, Daniel arrived in Munich with the 179th infantry, 45th division. The apartment was untouched by the war and was visited by several American servicemen from Daniel’s division. Daniel visited the apartment on May 6, and left with the figurine and Hitler’s personal stationery. The figurine was designed in 1913 by Rudolf Marcuse, a German-Jewish artist. He was persecuted by the Nazi authorities and fled Germany for England in 1936. Rosenthal AG, a world-renowned porcelain producer that designed and sold dinnerware and artistic works, manufactured the figurine in 1918. The company’s founder Philipp Rosenthal, was raised Catholic but had a Jewish grandfather and was classified as a Jew under German law. In 1934, Rosenthal AG was Aryanized and Philipp was removed from the company by its board members with the help of the local and national government. After the war, Philipp’s wife and son filed a restitution claim against Rosenthal AG that resulted in a cash payment and shares of the company. The figurine was a decoration in Hitler’s Munich apartment, which he began renting in 1929 and later bought in 1938. Hitler had the apartment renovated in 1935 by the design firm, Atelier Troost. The figurine was likely chosen and placed in the apartment by the interior decorator, Gerdy Troost, unaware of its Jewish origin. After the completed renovation, Hitler hosted foreign dignitaries and leaders such as Neville Chamberlain and Benito Mussolini.

Alternate Title
Before the Bath
designed:  1913
manufacture:  1918
found:  1945 May 06
manufacture: Selb (Germany)
acquired: Munich (Germany)
Decorative Arts
Credit Line
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of Daniel Jacobson
Record last modified: 2020-06-30 09:27:08
This page: