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Forbidden for Jews sign in Dutch displayed during the German occupation of the Netherlands

Object | Accession Number: 2000.292.1

Forbidden for Jews sign in Dutch, displayed in Amsterdam during the German occupation of the Netherlands from May 1940 to May 1945. These signs were used to indicate the ban of Jews from public spaces such as, swimming pools, libraries, and markets. They became widespread throughout Amsterdam in 1941. Germany invaded the Netherlands on May 10, 1940, and the Dutch surrendered five days later. Prior to the occupation, there were approximately 140,000 Jews living in the Netherlands, with the majority residing in Amsterdam. The Netherlands had a reputation for being more tolerant towards minorities than other European countries, and the majority of Dutch Jews were well assimilated. During the occupation, German authorities gradually imposed anti-Jewish policies. Beginning in October 1940 Jews were removed from government employment and banned from recreational facilities, hotels, and restaurants. In January 1941, a census was ordered for all people with Jewish blood. Within the next month, the first deportations of Jewish men to concentration camps began. The deportations and restrictions against Jews continued to intensify throughout 1942 and 1943. The German government relied heavily on Dutch authorities, like Jan Feitsma, the Attorney General of Amsterdam, whose name is on the sign, to enforce their policies. By May 1943, the roughly 10,000 remaining Jews in Amsterdam were being rounded up for deportation to concentration camps. By the end of the war over 75% of Dutch Jews had been murdered, more than in any other Western European country.

use:  <empty> 1941-approximately 1945
Amsterdam (Netherlands);
Information Forms
Signs (Notices)
Credit Line
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of the NIOD Institute for War-, Holocaust and Genocide Studies (Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie)
Record last modified: 2020-06-30 09:24:08
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