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Forced labor badge, yellow with a purple P, worn by a Polish Jewish woman in hiding as a Catholic

Object | Accession Number: 2008.227.2

Yellow badge with a purple P worn by 21 year old Krystyna (Kay) Nabel, to identify her as a Polish forced laborer in Germany from 1943-1944. During the German occupation of Poland, many non-Jewish Polish people were sent to Germany as conscript labor. When Kay and her husband Edward, Polish Jews, wore these badges they were living under false identities as Polish Catholics. Soon after Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, Kay Selinger left her family in Krakow and fled with her future husband, Edward Nabel, to Lvov (Lviv, Ukraine] where his parents had already relocated. They married there in June 1940. After Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, they returned to Krakow to escape the anti-Jewish pogroms launched by the Germans and the local Ukrainian population. When the Krakow ghetto was being liquidated by the Germans, Kay and Edward were sent to Bauhof labor camp. They escaped and, around November 1942, assumed false identities as Polish Catholics. They were sent as forced labor to Germany. Under their false identities, they were not married, so although for a time they worked on the same farm, most of this time they were assigned to separate locations. When they learned that Allied forces were approaching, they escaped and hid in the forests near Kongishofen where they were liberated by American troops on April 8, 1945. Edward's parents and all of Kay's family were killed in concentration camps. In October 1949, Kay and Edward emigrated to the US.

use:  1943-1944
use: Germany
Identifying Artifacts
Credit Line
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of Kay Nabel
Record last modified: 2023-08-24 08:22:01
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