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Cup and saucer from a café run by Jewish Austrian family

Object | Accession Number: 2017.259.2 a-b

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    Cup and saucer from a café run by Jewish Austrian family

    Overview

    Brief Narrative
    Coffee cup and saucer from café Dianabad brought with Alfred Linhard, his siblings, Edith, Peter, and Franzi, and their mother, Regina, when they left Vienna, Austria, for the United States in 1939. Café Dianabad was one of three cafes that Bernhard Linhard, Alfred’s father, co-owned with his father in law Anton Blum and brother in law, Arthur, in the center of Vienna. On March 13, 1938 Germany annexed Austria. New legislation was created that quickly restricted Jewish life. Alfred could no longer attend school, his father, Bernhard, was forced to give up his business. The family had to sell their furniture for money. After this Bernhard began seeking ways to get the family out of the country. Alfred’s older sister Edith was granted asylum in England. On April 20, 1939 Alfred’s father, Bernhard committed suicide. In spring 1939 Alfred’s younger brother and sister, Peter and Franzi, were selected to immigrate as part of the Gilbert and Eleanor Kraus rescue mission which brought 50 children from Vienna to America. In July, Alfred left for the United States. In August Franzi, died of bronchopneumonia near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In December his mother Regina came to the United States via Trieste, Italy. Alfred, his mother, and brother settled near Philadelphia.
    Date
    use:  1919-1938
    manufacture:  after 1918 September-1937
    Geography
    use: Vienna (Austria)
    manufacture: Horní Slavkov (Czech Republic)
    Credit Line
    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of Steven Linhard and Marion Linhard
    Markings
    a. base, underside, green glaze : 17(3 point crown)92 / *SCHLAGGENWALD* / H (pine tree above &) C / CZECHOSLOVAKIA [Haas & Czjzek maker’s mark]
    a. base, underside edge, pressed : 2 / 1888
    b. base, underside, green glaze : 17(3 point crown)92 / *SCHLAGGENWALD* / H (pine tree above &) C / CZECHOSLOVAKIA [Haas & Czjzek maker’s mark]
    b. base, underside, pressed : 1435
    Contributor
    Subject: Alfred Linhard
    Original owner: Bernhard Linhard
    Manufacturer: Haas & Czjzek Porzellanfabrik
    Biography
    Alfred Linhard was born on September 25, 1923 in Vienna, Austria, to Bernhard and Regina Blum Linhard. Bernhard was born on October 28, 1888, in Vienna, Austro-Hungary, to Abraham, a ladies’ tailor, and Rosa Linhard. Bernhard was a textile factory worker before he fought in World War I for Austro-Hungary, rising to the rank of sergeant. Regina was born in 1900 in Vienna. She had a sister, Stephanie (b. 1896), and two brothers, Arthur (1894-1946), and Jack. Both of her brothers fought for Austria during World War I. Bernhard and Regina married on March 6, 1921. Bernhard co-owned three successful cafes in Vienna, with his brother in law and father in law, Arthur and Anton Blum. Alfred had three siblings, Edith (Ditta 1922-1998), Franzi (b. 1926), and Peter (1933-2005). The Linhards lived in a well furnished apartment with a Steinway piano and spent the summers traveling to resorts and villages in Czechoslovakia, Austria or Hungary.

    On March 13, 1938 Austria was annexed into Germany, in what became known as the "Anschluss." German authorities quickly created new legislation that restricted Jewish life. Alfred was no longer allowed to attend school and it became dangerous for Jews to walk the streets. Within weeks Bernhard was forced to turn the cafés over to a new owner, eliminating the family’s income. After this, Bernhard began actively seeking ways to get the family out of the country. To make money, the family sold their furniture, receiving a fraction of its value. Friends, extended family members, and neighbors began to disappear. Food was scarce, but the family was able to get daily rations at an American relief organization kitchen. Alfred’s niece, Marietta Blum (1922-2010) was sent to England. His brother in law Arthur made an arrangement with a ship captain to help him escape the country quickly if necessary. When the Sturmabteilung came to arrest him he escaped through a rear door, contacted the ship captain and absconded to Singapore. Not long after, his wife, Alice, was able to get out of Vienna and reunite with their daughter in England and Alfred’s sister Edith was granted asylum in England. Alfred’s sister in law, Stephanie, married Oscar Winkler-Raphael and had a daughter, Eva who was sent to England. On November 10, 1938 the Linhard family’s home was raided by Sturmabteilung who searched the apartment and confiscated 2000 schillings. On April 20, 1939, Bernhard, despondent over the decreasing likelihood that he would be able to emigrate, took his own life.

    In the spring of 1939, Franzi and Peter were selected to be part of the rescue mission of Gilbert and Eleanor Kraus, an American Jewish couple who obtained 50 visas to rescue 50 Jewish children from Vienna and help them immigrate to the United States. Peter and Franzi boarded a train to Berlin with the rest of the children on May 21, and Alfred and their mother saw them off at the station. They arrived in Berlin later that day and were scheduled for physical examinations and final processing the following day. From Berlin they went to Hamburg, Germany, and boarded the SS President Harding which left for New York on May 23. Once they arrived in New York the children were taken to the Brith Sholom retreat in Pennsylvania. While there they took courses in civics and US history, as well as English-language training.

    Alfred was granted a visa to immigrate to the United States and on July 13, he boarded the SS Hamburg in Hamburg, Germany. Franzi, age 13, died of bronchopneumonia on August 28, 1939, in Philadelphia. In November, Alfred’s mother, Regina, left Europe via Trieste, Italy, arriving in the US in November aboard the SS Saturnia. His sister, Edith (later Ginsberg) boarded the SS Lancastria in England and arrived in New York on December 27. In July 1940 his sister in law Alice Blum, immigrated to New York from England, and in September her husband Arthur immigrated to New York from Singapore, via Kobe, Japan. On August 13, 1942, Alfred’s maternal grandfather Anton was deported to Theresienstadt ghetto-labor camp in German occupied Czechoslovakia, where he was murdered October 12. Stephanie was arrested October 1, and deported to Theresienstadt where she was murdered. Jack Blum is presumed to have died in the Holocaust.

    Alfred, Regina, and Peter settled in the Philadelphia area, where they were joined by Arthur, Alice and Marietta. Marietta married Dan Kurland they had two daughters, Lisa and Judy. Eva served as a British Army nurse during the war. She met Stephen I. Winston, a fellow holocaust survivor from Vienna, they married and had a daughter, Stephanie, named after her grandmother. Regina opened a small Park Shoppe in Philadelphia. Peter joined the US Army when he came of age and was discharged in 1955. Afterwards, he worked as a semi-professional pool player with the moniker Peter Rabbit. Alfred married Marion Abrams (b.1924) in 1949, the couple had one son, Steven. Alfred, aged 80, died in 2003 in Philadelphia.

    Physical Details

    Language
    German
    Classification
    Household Utensils
    Category
    Tableware
    Object Type
    Coffee cups (lcsh)
    Physical Description
    a. Cylindrical, thick, white, glazed porcelain coffee cup with a gold colored band painted just below the rounded rim. The band circles the body, beginning and ending where the top of a D-shaped handle is attached to one side. It has 2 engraved lines on the sides and 3 parallel, gold colored, horizontal lines hand painted on top. In gold paint, applied opposite the handle, is the café’s logo: a square with a diagonal line and small, filled in triangle in each rounded corner and the cafe name and owner’s name on 4 lines at the center . At the bottom, the foot ring is inset and the underside is stamped with a maker’s mark. The interior is smooth and flat with a few small gold paint flecks beneath the glaze.
    b. Circular, thick, white, glazed porcelain saucer with a flat center, a gold colored band painted at the top of slightly sloped sides, and a rounded rim. There is a foot ring at the bottom and the inset underside is stamped with a maker’s mark. The bottom is discolored from use.
    Dimensions
    a: Height: 2.375 inches (6.032 cm) | Width: 4.250 inches (10.795 cm) | Depth: 3.250 inches (8.255 cm)
    b: Height: 0.875 inches (2.223 cm) | Diameter: 5.250 inches (13.335 cm)
    Materials
    a : porcelain, paint, glaze
    b : porcelain, paint, glaze
    Inscription
    a. opposite the handle, stenciled, gold paint : CAFÉ / DIANABAD / BERNHARD / LINHARD

    Rights & Restrictions

    Conditions on Access
    No restrictions on access
    Conditions on Use
    No restrictions on use

    Keywords & Subjects

    Geographic Name
    Vienna (Austria)

    Administrative Notes

    Provenance
    The cup and saucer were donated to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 2017 by Steven Linhard and Marion Linhard, the son and wife of Alfred Linhard.
    Funding Note
    The cataloging of this artifact has been supported by a grant from the Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany.
    Record last modified:
    2024-02-21 07:11:14
    This page:
    https:​/​/collections.ushmm.org​/search​/catalog​/irn562280

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