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Weimar Germany Reichsbanknote, 1000 marks, kept by a Polish Jewish refugee

Object | Accession Number: 2012.358.3

German bank note for 1000 marks acquired by 8 year old Henikel (Harold) Minuskin before he and his family left Germany for the US in 1946. It was issued during the Weimar Republic in 1923. Henikel lived in Zhetel (Zdieciol) Poland (Dziatlava, Belarus), with his parents Shlamke and Shanke, and his younger brother Kalmanke. In June 1941, Zhekel was occupied by Nazi Germany. The Jews of the town were violently persecuted and over 120 prominent community members, including Henikel's uncle Leib, were shot. On February 22, 1942, all Jews were relocated to a ghetto. That August, the Germans began preparations to liquidate the ghetto. His father escaped to the nearby forest and joined the Jewish partisan resistance. His mother took 3 year old Henikel and 1 year old Kalmanke to an underground hiding place. After three days, they escaped to the forest. His father found them hiding in a root cellar and brought them to live with the Lenin Partisan Brigade in the Lipichanski forest in Poland (Bialowieza Forest, Poland and Belarus) from 1942-1944. Shlamke participated in the guerrilla action against the Germans, while Shanke repaired and sewed clothing. The area was liberated by the Soviet Army in September 1944. When the war ended in May 1945, the family went to Zeilsheim displaced persons camp in Germany. With the assistance of the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS), the family emigrated to the United States, arriving in New York on September 6, 1946.

Date
1923 January 01  (issue)
approximately 1946  (received)
Geography
issue : Berlin (Germany)
received : Berlin (Germany)
Language
German
Classification
Exchange Media
Category
Money
Credit Line
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of Harold Minuskin
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Record last modified: 2018-01-11 14:24:35
This page: https://collections.ushmm.org/search/catalog/irn58660