Advanced Search

Learn About The Holocaust

Special Collections

My Saved Research




Skip to main content

Gray wood and metal ladder used while in hiding by a Polish Jewish concentration camp inmate

Object | Accession Number: 2018.9.1

Ladder used by Michael Goldmann (later Goldmann-Gilead), Chanan Ansbacher, and Eli Heilman to hide in Konrad and Regina Zimoń’s hayloft in January 1945, in Rybnik, Poland. The men had escaped from a forced march after Auschwitz concentration camp was evacuated. They hid for a week, during which time the Zimoń’s oldest daughter, Stefania, regularly brought them food. In summer 1939, fearing a German invasion, Michael’s family left Katowice, Poland, and went to stay with relatives in Bircza. In September 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union invaded Poland, and Bircza fell under Soviet control. In June 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union. Michael’s brother Jacob was conscripted into the Soviet Army and Michael was transported to Przemysl forced labor camp. On July 27, 1942, Michael’s family was transported to Belzec killing center. In August 1943, Michael carried out an act of resistance and was whipped 81 times by camp commandant Josef Schwammberger. Later that year Michael was transported to Szebnie forced labor camp, Auschwitz-Birkenau, and Aushwitz III, Buna-Monowitz. In January 1945, Michael, Chanan, and Eli escaped and were hidden by the Zimoń family, who were named Righteous Among the Nations in 1995. After liberation, Michael joined the Soviet Army. In 1946, Michael illegally tried to immigrate to Palestine and was detained in an internment camp on Cyprus for 18 months. Upon his release in 1948, he settled near Tel Aviv, Israel, where he later served as a special police investigator in the Adolf Eichmann trial in the early 1960s. In 1992, he was a witness against former commandant Josef Schwammberger at his trial.

use:  1945 January 20-1945 January 26
use: Rybnik (Województwo Śląskie, Poland)
Tools and Equipment
Object Type
Ladders (lcsh)
Credit Line
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection
Record last modified: 2022-07-28 21:51:02
This page: