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Allied Military Authority currency, German ½ mark, acquired by a female forced laborer

Object | Accession Number: 2006.473.8

Allied military currency, 1/2 mark, acquired by Ruth Kittel while she and her sister, Hannelore, were living with their Jewish mother, Marie (Maria), and Catholic father, Josef, in Berlin, Germany, during the Holocaust. Military currency or occupation money was produced for use by military personnel in occupied territories. The notes for different currencies: lire, francs, kroner, marks, schillings, and yen, had similar designs for ease of production. On September 19, 1941, 14 year old Ruth picked-up government mandated Judenstern or Star of David badges from the Office of the Jewish Organization because she, Hannelore, 17, and Maria had to wear one at all times to identify themselves as Jewish. In spring 1942, Jewish schools were closed, and Ruth had to register as a forced laborer with the Work Office for Jews. In November, Ruth was assigned to the Osram light bulb factory. On February 27, 1943, she was taken from Osram and transported to a collection camp on Lehrter Street and then another on Rosen Street. On March 6, she was released. In May, Ruth returned to her forced labor detail, and worked at several factories. On May 7, 1945, Germany surrendered. On August 22, 1946, Ruth, Hannelore, Maria, and Josef immigrated to the United States.

issue:  1944
issue: Germany
Exchange Media
Credit Line
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of Ron and Susan Miller
Record last modified: 2020-04-14 17:29:20
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