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Powiatowy Komitet Żydowski w Tarnowie (Sygn. 365)

Document | Digitized | Accession Number: 2018.331.1 | RG Number: RG-15.623

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    This collection contains materials refering to the everyday life of members of the Jewish committee in Tarnów and the functioning of the committee, including correspondence, a list of Jews living in Tarnów in 1949, a list of items in clothing store from 1947, as well as numerous financial documents regarding assistance provided.
    Alternate Title
    County Jewish Committee in Tarnów
    inclusive:  1946-1949
    Credit Line
    Forms part of the Claims Conference International Holocaust Documentation Archive at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. This archive consists of documentation whose reproduction and/or acquisition was made possible with funding from the Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany.
    Collection Creator
    Gmina ?ydowska w Tarnowie
    Tarnów is a city in southern Poland, 45 miles east of Kraków (Cracow). Before World War II, about 25,000 Jews lived in Tarnów. Jews—whose recorded presence in the town went back to the mid-fifteenth century—comprised about half of the town's total population. A large portion of Jewish business in Tarnów was devoted to garment and hat manufacturing. The Jewish community was ideologically diverse and included both religious Hasidim and secular Zionists. Immediately following the German occupation of the city on September 8, 1939, the harassment of the Jews began. German units burned down most of the city's synagogues on September 9 and drafted Jews for forced-labor projects. Tarnów was incorporated into the Generalgouvernement (the territory in the interior of occupied Poland). Many Tarnów Jews fled to the east, while a large influx of refugees from elsewhere in Poland continued to increase the town's Jewish population. In early November, the Germans ordered the establishment of a Jewish council (Judenrat) to transmit orders and regulations to the Jewish community. Among the duties of the Jewish council were enforcement of special taxation on the community and providing workers for forced labor. During 1941, life for the Jews of Tarnów became increasingly precarious. The Germans imposed a large collective fine on the community. Jews were required to hand in their valuables. Roundups for labor became more frequent and killings became more commonplace and arbitrary. Deportations from Tarnów began in June 1942, when about 13,500 Jews were sent to the Bełżec killing center. During the deportation operations, German SS and police forces massacred hundreds of Jews in the streets, in the marketplace, in the Jewish cemetery, and in the woods outside the town. After the June deportations, the Germans ordered the surviving Jews in Tarnów, along with thousands of Jews from neighboring towns, into a ghetto. The ghetto was surrounded by a high wooden fence. Living conditions in the ghetto were poor, marked by severe food shortages, a lack of sanitary facilities, and a forced-labor regimen in factories and workshops producing goods for the German war industry. In September 1942, the Germans ordered all ghetto residents to report at Targowica Square, where they were subjected to a Selektion (selection) in which those deemed "unessential" were selected out for deportation to Bełżec. About 8,000 people were deported. Thereafter, deportations from Tarnow to killing centers continued sporadically; the Germans deported a group of 2,500 in November 1942. In the midst of the 1942 deportations, some Jews in Tarnów organized a resistance movement. Many of the resistance leaders were young Zionists involved in the Ha-Shomer Ha-Tsa'ir youth movement. Many of those who left the ghetto to join the partisans fighting in the forests later fell in battle with SS units. Other resisters sought to establish escape routes to Hungary, but with limited success. The Germans decided to destroy the Tarnów ghetto in September 1943. The surviving 10,000 Jews were deported, 7,000 of them to Auschwitz and 3,000 to the Płaszów concentration camp in Krakow. In late 1943, Tarnów was declared "free of Jews" (judenrein). By the end of the war, the overwhelming majority of Tarnów Jews had been murdered by the Germans. Although some 700 Jews returned to the city after liberation, virtually all of them soon left to escape local antisemitism. [Source: USHMM, Holocaust Encyclopedia]

    Physical Details

    3,138 digital images : PDF.
    System of Arrangement
    Arranged in one series: 1. Organizational files [File 1-11]

    Rights & Restrictions

    Conditions on Access
    This material can only be accessed in a Museum reading room or other on-campus viewing stations. No other access restrictions apply to this material.
    Conditions on Use
    Publication or copying of more than several documents for a third party requires the permission of the Żydowski Instytut Historyczny imienia Emanuela Ringelbluma.

    Keywords & Subjects

    Geographic Name
    Tarnów (Poland)

    Administrative Notes

    Source of acquisition is the Żydowski Instytut Historyczny im. Emanuela Ringelbluma Poland, Sygn. 623. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Archives received the filmed collection via the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum International Archival Programs Division in June 2018.
    Record last modified:
    2022-07-28 18:18:26
    This page:

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