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Multi-colored acrylic painting of a ghetto street and buildings painted by a Polish Jewish artist

Object | Accession Number: 2018.398.3

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    Overview

    Brief Narrative
    Acrylic painting of a street and buildings during the liquidation of the Vilna ghetto in September, 1943, created by Holocaust survivor Judith Evan Goldstein from her memory as a child living in the ghetto. Judith was a child living in Vilna, Poland (now Vilnius, Lituania) when the country was occupied by Germany and the Soviet Union in September 1939. In June 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union, occupied Vilna, and initiated measures targeting the Jewish population. Jewish property was vandalized and taken, men were abducted and conscripted into forced labor battalions, and the Jewish population was forced into two overcrowded ghettos. In September 1943, the ghetto was liquidated and Judith, her mother, and aunt were transported to Kaiserwald concentration camp in German-occupied Latvia, where Judith was a forced laborer for Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft (AEG). In September 1944, they were evacuated to Stutthof labor camp in Poland, where they worked at Thorn (Toruń), an AEG subcamp. On January 20, 1945, they were evacuated and force marched toward Bromberg, Germany (now Bydgoszcz, Poland). Judith, her mother, and aunt escaped and hid in a house until Soviet forces found them the next day. After liberation, they went to Łódź and reunited with her brother and learned her father had been liberated by the Soviets, but died fighting in the Soviet army. The family lived near the Zeilsheim displaced persons (DP) camp in Frankfurt am Main, and immigrated to the United States in 1949. Later in life, she began creating art and music based on her experiences and has also been featured in over 20 exhibits.
    Title
    The Lonely Street
    Date
    creation:  1980
    depiction:  1943 September
    Geography
    depiction: Wilno getto (Vilnius, Lithuania); Vilnius (Lithuania)
    creation: United States
    Credit Line
    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of Judith Evan Goldstein
    Markings
    back, stretcher, top right and bottom left, inscribed : 24 ANCO BILT
    back, stretcher, bottom right, inscribed : 36 ANCO BILT / G CHUAEN
    back, stretcher, left top, inscribed : 36 [obscured] BILT / [obscured] AEN
    back, stretcher, inscribed on metal brackets : S&W / CAT 313
    back, repeated around frame, inscribed : MADE IN ITALY
    Signature
    front, bottom left, handwritten, purple paint : Judith Evan Goldstein / Evan Goldstein
    Contributor
    Subject: Judith E. Goldstein
    Artist: Judith E. Goldstein
    Biography
    Judith Evan Goldstein (b. Judith Shapiro, 1932) was born in Vilna, Poland (now Vilnius, Lithuania), to Chaim (Hayim) and Yetta (Yentl or Yenta) Golomb Shapiro. Judith had one older brother, Meir (b. 1926) and Yetta’s sister, Frieda, lived with the family. Yetta was a seamstress who designed and sold dresses from home and made the children’s clothes. Chaim was a mechanic for Olejarnia Kurlandzka and later took a job as a designer in an oil factory in Lida, Poland. He was also a handyman who crafted toys and trinkets for his children. The family lived in a nice apartment with a terrace and would often take walks around the city. Vilna had a large Jewish population and was a center of Jewish culture. Chaim was a secular Jew with socialist leanings, who, on occasion, would break kosher, while Yetta, was more observant. Judith’s mother nicknamed her Muśkele and the family spoke mostly Yiddish and some Polish at home. Judith attended public school and Meir went to Ezra, a private Hebrew school, and later gymnasium.

    In September 1939, in accordance with the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, Germany and the Soviet Union invaded and partitioned Poland. Vilna was in the Soviet zone, but was exchanged with Lithuania in October for acceptance of Soviet troops within their borders. The border change placed Lida, where Chaim worked, in the Soviet zone and the family had to move there so he could continue working. In June 1940, the Soviet Union fully annexed Lithuania. Judith and her family then moved back to Vilna and Chaim got a job as an engineer at a beer factory. On June 22, 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union and occupied Vilna on June 24.

    The authorities immediately declared that Jews could not use the sidewalks, their valuables were taken, and Jewish businesses and synagogues were vandalized. All Jews had to wear the Star of David, and Jewish men were taken for forced labor by Khapunes (snatchers). In September 1941, Jews were forced to move into two ghettos established in the poorest section of the city. Judith’s family could only bring a few things and was forced to live in a small apartment with several other families. Chaim received a job outside the ghetto, repairing abandoned Soviet military equipment and was able to get Meir a job painting machines. Yetta was forced to work as a seamstress for the Germans. Every month, the authorities selected thousands of Jews, mostly women and children, for aktions. They were taken to Ponary (Paneriai) forest outside the city and executed. With the exception of Aunt Frieda, all of Judith’s extended family who lived in and around the city were killed in this way. Judith’s parents’ skilled work allowed the family and Frieda, who still lived with them, to avoid selection for the aktions.

    In September 1943, the ghetto was liquidated and Chaim was taken away. The rest of Judith’s family was able to hide, but were later caught. The women were separated from the men and the young, elderly, and mothers with newborns were selected for execution. To make Judith look taller and older, Yetta fluffed up her hair and changed her birth year to 1930. Judith, Yetta and Frieda were then forced inside a box-car and deported to Kaiserwald concentration camp in German-occupied Latvia. Upon arrival their heads were shaved, their possessions were confiscated, their clothes were taken, and they were issued striped uniforms with numbers. They were housed in louse-ridden barracks and had to sleep four to a bunk. In the mornings the prisoners were forced outside for hours-long roll calls. Yetta and Frieda had to shovel coal, and Judith was a forced laborer for Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft (AEG), connecting wires to receptors on field telephones. While there, Judith became ill with diphtheria, which caused her to miss a children’s aktion in the camp. In September of 1944, with the Soviet army approaching, the camp was evacuated. The prisoners were marched to the port of Riga, and forced into the holds of ships for three days while they sailed to Stutthof labor camp in German-occupied Poland. Judith was very ill on the journey. Judith, Yetta, and Frieda were kept at Stutthof until October, then transferred to Thorn (Toruń), an AEG subcamp in the Stutthof complex.

    In Thorn, the prisoners were forced to load and unload heavy machines for the factory, work at the river port, and manufacture ammunition and weapons. They lived in cold barracks and received one slice of bread, a little margarine, and a plate of watery soup every day. Judith had to search though the garbage for extra food under the threat of whipping if she was caught. Many prisoners froze to death. To keep warm, Judith stuffed paper under her clothes. On January 20, 1945, Thorn was evacuated ahead of the approaching Soviet army. Judith, Yeta, and Frieda were forced to march to Bydgoszcz (Bromberg), Germany, to work at a new factory. Any prisoner who strayed from the line was shot by the guards. During a lapse in the guard’s supervision, Judith, Yetta, and Frieda escaped and took shelter in an empty house. When the Germans came looking for them, they hid in the chimney. The Soviets found them the next day and gave them a small apartment to live in. Yetta stitched and repaired clothes in exchange for food.

    They remained in Germany until after the war’s end in May, and then went to Łódź, Poland, hoping to discover news of Chaim and Meir. In Łódź, they shared an apartment with another family and reunited with Meir who had spent time as a forced laborer in several camps. They discovered that Chaim had been liberated and recruited by the Soviet army, but he died in battle eight days before Germany surrendered. The family remained in Łódź for a year. Frieda married a man and moved to Munich. Judith, Yetta, and Meir went to Germany and stayed near the Zeilsheim displaced persons (DP) camp in Frankfurt am Main, and were then transferred to nearby Lampertheim. Judith went to school and attended the Offenbach Conservatory of Music where she studied piano. She met Hershl (now Harry) Goldstein, a fellow survivor whose family was killed at Auschwitz. Harry immigrated to the Unites States in 1948, and waited until Judith and her family’s immigration quotas were selected. In 1949 Judith, Yetta, and Meir traveled to Bremerhaven, boarded the General Stuart Heintzelman, and sailed to New York. In the US, Yetta found work in a clothing factory and Meir became an engineer. Judith and Harry married in 1950. Judith earned a master’s degree in music and used music therapy to teach the learning and developmentally disabled. Later in life, she began creating art and music based on her experiences. She has work in the collections of Yad Vashem and the Holocaust Museum of Art in St. Petersburg Florida. Her art has also been featured in over 20 exhibits.

    Physical Details

    Language
    English
    Classification
    Art
    Category
    Paintings
    Genre/Form
    Art.
    Physical Description
    Large, acrylic painting on a rectangular canvas depicting an empty street of the Vilna ghetto, lined on one side with buildings. The colors of the street are a combination of green, blue, red, purple, black, and orange shaded patches blended together. They continue upward along the left side to form the night sky. In the upper left corner is a circular area of lighter, swirling color, likely the moon. The left building has a large, arched, ground level doorway and a long, tubular shape with a long, thin, red center, protruding from the roof. The middle building is tall and rectangular with a small balcony on the second floor and a hipped roof. The building on the right is smaller and narrower with a pitched roof. All three buildings are shaded in green, blue, red, and yellow patches that overlap. The painting is mounted in a gold painted wooden frame and has a raised outer edge with a lower center. The canvas is wrapped around the outside of a wooden stretcher, which is mounted tightly inside the painting frame, with the excess canvas hanging loose. There is a metal bracket screwed to the center of each side of the frame, and a small eye bolt on the left and right sides holding a metal wire across the upper half. The stretcher has manufacturing information engraved into the right end of each piece and the frame has text engraved around the edges. The stretcher has several small red droplets of acrylic paint stains.
    Dimensions
    overall: Height: 39.625 inches (100.648 cm) | Width: 27.500 inches (69.85 cm) | Depth: 1.750 inches (4.445 cm)
    Materials
    overall : canvas, acrylic paint, wood, metal, ink
    Inscription
    back, top, handwritten, purple ink : 24x36” “The Lonely Street” by Judith Evan Goldstein 1980
    back, top, handwritten, black ink : 24 [inverted]

    Rights & Restrictions

    Conditions on Access
    No restrictions on access
    Conditions on Use
    Restrictions on use

    Keywords & Subjects

    Administrative Notes

    Provenance
    The painting was donated to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 2018 by Judith Evan Goldstein.
    Record last modified:
    2023-06-08 07:06:57
    This page:
    https:​/​/collections.ushmm.org​/search​/catalog​/irn625854

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