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Star of David badge printed Jude worn by a Jewish doctor

Object | Accession Number: 1993.153.2

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    Star of David badge printed Jude worn by a Jewish doctor

    Overview

    Brief Narrative
    Yellow Star of David patch, printed with Jude, German for Jew, worn by Dr. Hermann Scharf or his wife Elizabeth, who were from Irsava and interned in Berehove ghetto and multiple concentration camps from March 1944 until May 1945. Irsava, Czechoslovakia, was taken over by Hungary in fall 1938, then by Germany on March 19, 1944. Star of David badges were required on March 31. On April 16, Hermann and Elizabeth were sent to Berehove ghetto. In May, they were sent to Auschwitz and separated. On May 24-8, Hermann was sent to Buchenwald, then to Dora-Mittelbau, where he was a doctor in the Jewish infirmary. In April 1945, Hermann was sent on a death march to Ravensbrück, then to Woebbelin, where he was freed by American forces in early May 1945. He returned to Prague, where he was reunited with Elizabeth. Elizabeth had been sent from Auschwitz to Stutthof concentration camp, where she was liberated by the Soviets on May 9, 1945. Hermann and Elizabeth left for the US in 1948.
    Date
    use:  approximately 1944 March 31-1945 May
    Geography
    use: Irshava (Ukraine)
    use: Berehove (Ukraine)
    Credit Line
    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of Elizabeth Scharf, in memory of her husband, Dr. Louis Scharf, and Adalbert "Bela" Rosenbaum
    Markings
    front, center, black dye : Jude [Jew]
    Contributor
    Subject: Louis H. Scharf
    Subject: Elizabeth Scharf
    Biography
    Hermann Scharf was born on January 5, 1906, in Berehy, Czechoslovakia (now Velyki Berehy, Ukraine), to a Jewish couple, Ignatz and Ester Schonberger Scharf. He had two sisters: Charlotte, born on February 5, 1912, and Sidonie, born February 4, 1917. Hermann was a physician. He married Elizabeth Rosenbaum in Prague. Elizabeth was born on May 25, 1912, in Berehovo (Berehove, Ukraine). Hermann and Elizabeth lived in Irsava (Irshava, Ukraine).

    In fall 1938, with the First Vienna Award, Nazi Germany forced the return of southern Slovakia, including Irsava, to Hungary. The Hungarian government had anti-Jewish policies modelled on Germany's. Hungary participated in the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941. But in late 1943, when it appeared Germany might lose the war, Hungary sought peace with the western allies. On March 19, 1944, German forces occupied Hungary and began preparations for the deportation of all Jews to concentration camps. On March 31, Jews older than six were required to wear yellow Star of David badges and many were relocated. On April 16, Hermann and Elizabeth were arrested in Irsava. Along with Hermann’s sisters, they were sent to Berehove ghetto. In May, Hermann and Elizabeth were deported to Auschwitz concentration camp in German occupied Poland, where they were separated. On May 24, Hermann was transferred to Buchenwald concentration camp in Germany, and assigned prisoner number 55857. On May 28, he was sent to Dora, a subcamp of Buchenwald. He worked as a doctor in the Jewish infirmary. The Dora-Mittelbau camps were barbaric, and prisoners lived and worked in underground tunnels. On October 28, Dora became an autonomous camp called Mittelbau. In early April 1945, Mittelbau was evacuated and the prisoners were sent on death marches. Hermann reached Ravensbrück concentration camp and was assigned prisoner number 16044. He was then sent to Woebbelin, a Neuengamme subcamp near Ludwigslust, Germany. Hermann was liberated in Woebbelin by American forces in early May 1945.

    In July, Hermann returned to Prague. He was reunited with his wife, Elizabeth, and his sisters, Charlotte and Sidonie. Elizabeth had been transferred from Auschwitz to Stutthof and was liberated by Soviet forces on May 9. Charlotte and Sidonie had been deported to Auschwitz on May 20, 1944, where Charlotte was assigned prisoner number A-6783. In January 1945, they were sent to Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in Germany, where they were liberated by British forces on April 15, 1945. They went to Budapest in June, then to Prague. Charlotte worked as a clerk and Sidonie as a dressmaker. On May 8, 1948, Hermann, Elizabeth, Charlotte, and Sidonie sailed from Gothenburg, Sweden, on the MS Gripsholm, arriving in New York on May 19. Herman and Elizabeth immigrated under the names Herman and Alzbeta Ostry. Hermann changed his name to Louis Herman and Sidonie changed her name to Sandra. Louis and Elizabeth lived in Poughkeepsie, New York, and eventually settled in Youngstown, Ohio. Charlotte also settled in Youngstown and Sandra settled in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Louis, 78, died on January 14, 1984. Elizabeth, 85, passed away on June 9, 1997. Sandra, 85, died on April 30, 2002. Charlotte, 95, died on March 16, 2011.
    Elizabeth Rosenbaum was born on May 25, 1912, in Berehovo, Czechoslovakia (now Berehove, Ukraine), to a Jewish couple. Elizabeth married Hermann Scharf, who was born on January 5, 1906, in Berehy (Velyki Berehy, Ukraine). Hermann was a physician. The couple lived in Irsava in Slovakia (now Irshava, Ukraine).

    In fall 1938, with the First Vienna Award, Nazi Germany forced the return of southern Slovakia, including Irsava, to Hungary. The Hungarian government had anti-Jewish policies modelled on Germany's. Hungary participated in the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941. But in late 1943, when it appeared Germany might lose the war, Hungary sought peace with the western allies. On March 19, 1944, German forces occupied Hungary. On March 19, 1944, German forces occupied Hungary and began preparations for the deportation of all Jews to concentration camps. On March 31, Jews older than six were required to wear yellow Star of David badges and many were relocated. On April 16, Hermann and Elizabeth were arrested in Irsava and, along with Hermann's sisters, Charlotte and Sidonie, sent to Berehovo ghetto. In May, they were deported to Auschwitz concentration camp in German occupied Poland. Elizabeth was separated from Hermann and sent to Stutthof concentration camp in Germany. She was liberated in Stutthof by Soviet forces on May 9, 1945.

    Elizabeth returned to Prague, where she was reunited Hermann. He had been interned in Auschwitz, Buchenwald, Dora-Mittelbau, Ravensbrück, and Wobbelin concentration camps before his liberation in early May 1945. Elizaneth's sisters-in-law, Charlotte and Sidonie, had been deported to Auschwitz on May 20, 1944, where Charlotte was assigned prisoner number A-6783. In January 1945, they were sent to Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in Germany, where they were liberated on April 15, 1945, by British forces. On May 8, 1948, Elizabeth, Hermann, Charlotte, and Sidonie sailed from Gothenburg, Sweden, on the MS Gripsholm, arriving in New York on May 19. Herman and Elizabeth emigrated under the names Herman and Alzbeta Ostry. Hermann changed his name to Louis Herman Scharf. The couple lived in Poughkeepise, New York, and eventually settled in Youngstown, Ohio. Louis, 78, died on January 14, 1984. Elizabeth, 85, passed away on June 9, 1997.

    Physical Details

    Language
    German
    Classification
    Identifying Artifacts
    Category
    Badges
    Physical Description
    Yellow cloth badge in the shape of a 6 pointed Star of David. The star outline is formed from 2 overlapping, dyed triangles and has the German word Jude in a pseudo-Hebrew font in the center. The frayed edges are hand sewn onto the back with black thread.
    Dimensions
    overall: Height: 3.625 inches (9.208 cm) | Width: 3.125 inches (7.938 cm)
    Materials
    overall : cloth, dye, thread

    Rights & Restrictions

    Conditions on Access
    No restrictions on access
    Conditions on Use
    No restrictions on use

    Keywords & Subjects

    Administrative Notes

    Provenance
    The badge was donated to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 1993 by Elizabeth Scharf, the wife of Louis Scharf.
    Funding Note
    The cataloging of this artifact has been supported by a grant from the Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany.
    Record last modified:
    2022-07-28 18:22:12
    This page:
    https:​/​/collections.ushmm.org​/search​/catalog​/irn7285

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