Deutsch family papers
Contains a Schutzbrief (protective document) issued by the Swedish Red Cross in Budapest, Hungary to Maria Klein Deutsch (donor's mother) and her 10 year old son Peter (donor), dated August 21, 1944; five postcards written by Ernö Deutsch from a forced labor camp in 1943 and 1944; two letters written by Maria Deutsch Dallos, in Hungarian, dated November 1945, in which she describes events and losses suffered and in 1977 in which she wrote down her memories since 1937 through the liberation of Budapest and the first few years after the war; and newspaper clippings dated circa 1944.
- Credit Line
- United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of Peter Dallos
Record last modified: 2020-02-12 09:37:32
This page: https://collections.ushmm.org/search/catalog/irn73319
Also in Peter Dallos family collection
The collection consists of a Star of David badge, documents, and postcards relating to the experiences of Erno and Maria Klein Deutsch and their son Peter in Hungary during the Holocaust and to Maria and Peter after the war.
Star of David badge worn by 10 year old Peter Deutsch in German occupied Budapest, Hungary, beginning April 6, 1944. The wearing of this badge, required of all Jews, made Peter and his mother feel acutely ashamed. Hungary was a German ally, but after the defeat at Stalingrad, sought a separate truce with the western Allies. To thwart these efforts, Germany occupied Hungary in March 1944. Immediately after invading, the Germans began to systematically deport all the Jews of Hungary to concentration camps. Peter's father Erno was sent to a forced labor camp in Serbia. Peter and his mother had to move into a Jews only building. In August, Peter's mother Marie acquired two protective passes issued by the Swedish Red Cross which exempted them from deportation. By October, the Jews in Budapest were the last remaining Jews in Hungary. On October 15, a German orchestrated coup brought the antisemitic, fascist Arrow Cross Party to power and deportations increased. In November, Peter and Marie had to move into a Swedish protected house. The city was under almost constant bombing and they stayed in the cellar most of the time. In mid-January 1945, their section of the city, Pest, was liberated by the Soviet Army; Buda was freed on February 13. Peter's father did not return and they learned that he had been killed in the camp or during a forced march. Nearly all of Peter's relatives in Hungary when the war began perished.