Łódź (Litzmannstadt) ghetto scrip, 2 mark note acquired by a Polish Jewish survivor
approximately 1940 May 15
Litzmannstadt-Getto (Łódź, Poland);
- Object Type
- Credit Line
- United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of Clara Kramer, in memory of her sister Mania
Łódź ghetto scrip, 2 mark note, acquired by Klara Schwarz (later Clara Kramer) at an unknown date; origin is also unknown as she was never a Łódź Ghetto resident. After Nazi Germany occupied Łódź in September 1939, it was renamed Litzmannstadt. When the ghetto was set up, currency was confiscated in exchange for Quittungen [receipts] that could be exchanged only in the ghetto. Klara was 12 when her hometown of Zolkiew, Poland, (later Zhovkva, Ukraine) was occupied. In December 1942, Klara, her sister Manja, and her parents went into hiding in a bunker under the home of an ethnic German family, Valentin and Julia Beck and daughter Ala. In April 1943, Manja sister was caught and killed by the Germans when she fled the bunker during a block fire. The region was liberated in July 1944. Klara went to a displaced person' camp in Austria, where she married and then emigrated to Israel in 1948.
Record last modified: 2021-02-10 09:27:58
This page: https://collections.ushmm.org/search/catalog/irn8893
Also in Clara Kramer collection
The collection consist of one piece of Łódź ghetto scrip, a wartime diary, an autograph book, biographical materials, and photographs relating to the experiences of Clara Kramer during the Holocaust while in hiding, as well as pre-Holocaust friendships and postwar nursing training and work in displaced persons camps.
The Clara Kramer papers consist of a wartime diary written in hiding, an autograph book, biographical materials, and photographs documenting Kramer’s experience in hiding during the war as well as pre‐Holocaust friendships and postwar nursing training and work in displaced persons camps and in Israel. Clara Kramer’s diary contains daily accounts of her life in a hidden bunker from April 1943 through their liberation written in notebooks given to her by the family’s protector, Valentin Beck. The diary describes cramped living conditions, meager food supplies, frequent threats of discovery, and the death of Kramer’s sister. The autograph book includes autographs, messages, poems, and drawings by Kramer’s childhood friends. Biographical materials consist of certificates and memoranda documenting Kramer’s training and service as a nurse in and around displaced persons camps in Linz, Steyr, and Bad Reichenall as well as affidavits documenting the identities and marriage of Sol Kramer’s parents, Berisch and Ethel Kramer. Photographs depict Clara Kramer’s childhood friends and the Żółkiew synagogue. These photographs were removed from the autograph book described above.