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Caricature of Nuremberg International Military Tribunal defendant Franz von Papen, by the German newspaper caricaturist, Peis.

Photograph | Digitized | Photograph Number: 49550

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    Caricature of Nuremberg International Military Tribunal defendant Franz von Papen, by the German newspaper caricaturist, Peis.
    Caricature of Nuremberg International Military Tribunal defendant Franz von Papen, by the German newspaper caricaturist, Peis.


    Caricature of Nuremberg International Military Tribunal defendant Franz von Papen, by the German newspaper caricaturist, Peis.
    1946 October 01
    Nuremberg, [Bavaria] Germany
    Variant Locale
    Photo Credit
    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of Gerald (Gerd) Schwab
    Event History
    The International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg opened in the fall of 1945, but by the winter of 1942, the governments of the Allied powers had already announced their determination to punish Nazi war criminals. On December 17, 1942, the leaders of the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union issued the first joint declaration officially noting the mass murder of European Jewry and resolving to prosecute those responsible for violence against civilian populations. Though some political leaders advocated for summary executions instead of trials, eventually the Allies decided to hold an International Military Tribunal so that, in the words of Cordell Hull, "a condemnation after such a proceeding will meet the judgment of history, so that the Germans will not be able to claim that an admission of war guilt was extracted from them under duress." The October 1943 Moscow Declaration, signed by U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet leader Josef Stalin, stated that at the time of an armistice persons deemed responsible for war crimes would be sent back to those countries in which the crimes had been committed and adjudged according to the laws of the nation concerned. Major war criminals, whose crimes could be assigned no particular geographic location, would be punished by joint decisions of the Allied governments.

    The trials of leading German officials before the International Military Tribunal (IMT), the best known of the postwar war crimes trials, formally opened in Nuremberg on November 20, 1945, only six and a half months after Germany surrendered. Each of the four Allied nations -- the United States, Britain, the Soviet Union, and France -- supplied a judge and a prosecution team. Lord Justice Geoffrey Lawrence of Great Britain served as the court's presiding judge. The trial's rules were the result of delicate reconciliations of the Continental and Anglo-American judicial systems. A team of translators provided simultaneous translations of all proceedings in four languages: English, French, German, and Russian. After much debate, 24 defendants were selected to represent a cross-section of Nazi diplomatic, economic, political, and military leadership. Adolf Hitler, Heinrich Himmler, and Joseph Goebbels never stood trial,having committed suicide before the end of the war. The IMT decided not to try them posthumously so as not to create an impression that they might still be alive. In fact, only 21 defendants appeared in court. German industrialist Gustav Krupp was included in the original indictment, but he was elderly and in failing health, and it was decided in preliminary hearings to exclude him from the proceedings. Nazi Party secretary Martin Bormann was tried and convicted in absentia, and Robert Ley committed suicide on the eve of the trial.

    The IMT indicted the defendants on charges of crimes against peace, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. The IMT defined crimes against humanity as "murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation...or persecutions on political, racial, or religious grounds." A fourth charge of conspiracy was added both to cover crimes committed under domestic Nazi law before the start of World War II and so that subsequent tribunals would have jurisdiction to prosecute any individual belonging to a proven criminal organization. Therefore the IMT also indicted several Nazi organizations deemed to be criminal, namely the Reich Cabinet, the Leadership Corps of the Nazi Party, the Elite Guard (SS), the Security Service (SD), the Secret State Police (Gestapo), the Stormtroopers (SA), and the General Staff and High Command of the German Armed Forces.

    The defendants were entitled to a legal counsel of their choosing. Over 400 visitors attended the proceedings each day, as well as 325 correspondents representing 23 different countries. American chief prosecutor Robert Jackson decided to argue his case primarily on the basis of mounds of documents written by the Nazis themselves rather than eyewitness testimony so that the trial could not be accused of relying on biased or tainted testimony. Testimony presented at Nuremberg revealed much of what we know about the Holocaust including the details of the Auschwitz death machinery, the destruction of the Warsaw ghetto, and the estimate of six million Jewish victims.

    The judges delivered their verdict on October 1, 1946. Agreement among three out of four judges was needed for conviction. Twelve defendants were sentenced to death, among them Joachim von Ribbentrop, Hans Frank, Alfred Rosenberg, and Julius Streicher. They were hanged, cremated in Dachau, and their ashes were dropped in the Isar River. Hermann Goering escaped the hangman's noose by committing suicide the night before. The IMT sentenced three defendants to life imprisonment and four to prison terms ranging from 10 to 20 years. It acquitted three of the defendants.

    Rights & Restrictions

    Photo Source
    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
    Copyright: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
    Provenance: Gerald (Gerd) Schwab

    Keywords & Subjects

    Administrative Notes

    Artifact Photographer
    Max Reid
    Franz von Papen, (1879-1969) was a Weimar politician, Chancellor of Germany (June-November, 1932), Vice Chancellor (1933-34), and ambassadors to Austria (1934-38) and Turkey (1939-44). Following the end of World War I, Franz von Papen became a member of the extreme right-wing of the Center party. He served in the Prussian parliament from 1920 to 1928 and again from 1930 to 1932. In 1932, von Papen played a key role in removing the Center party governement of Chancellor Heinrich Bruening and replacing him as Chancellor in June of that year. In that capacity, von Papen was responsible for the removal of the Social Democratic government of Prussia and the implementation of anti-democratic emergency decrees. He also removed the ban on the SA and the SS. In November 1932, von Papen resigned from office and immediately reached an agreement with the Nazis to help remove his successor, Kurt von Schleicher, and replace him with Adolf Hitler. Following the Nazi seizure of power in January 1933, von Papen was appointed vice-Chancellor. He resigned his post in 1934, after narrowly escaping with his life during the Roehm purge. He was appointed ambassador to Austria where he played a decisive role in the Anschluss of 1938. In 1939 von Papen became ambassador to Turkey, where he remained until 1944. During a reception on August 13, 1944, Adolf Hitler decorated the former ambassador to Turkey with the Knight's Cross and the War Service Cross. Arrested and tried at Nuremberg in 1946, von Papen was acquitted of all charges. In 1949 he was brought to trial by a West German denazification court which found him guilty and sentenced him to time in a labor camp. However, he was immediately released following a successful appeal.

    [Encyc. of the Holocaust, 3:1101-02, Encyc. of the Third Reich, (Zentner & Beduerftig, eds.) 2:686-87].
    Record last modified:
    2005-07-13 00:00:00
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