The Emergency Rescue Committee (ERC) was established in New York in the summer of 1940 in the wake of the defeat of France and its acceptance of Hitler's terms for an armistice. Article 19 of the agreement committed the new French government under Marshal Philippe Petain to surrender on demand all refugees from the Greater German Reich. The impetus for the ERC came from some of the leaders and associates of the American Friends of German Freedom, an organization formed in the U.S. in 1936 to provide support for the socialist, anti-Nazi underground in Germany. Among these people were Karl B. Frank (an Austrian Jewish political activist, who had recently fled to the U.S.), Reinhold Niebuhr (Protestant theologian), Frank Kingdon (Methodist churchman) and Raymond Gram Swing (radio commentator). The members of the ERC feared for the lives of hundreds of anti-Nazi refugee intellectuals and artists, who had fled the Reich and were now trapped within the closed borders of Vichy France. Under the chairmanship of Kingdon, the committee set itself the mission to locate a group of approximately 200 prominent refugees and to arrange for their escape from France and transport to America. The mission was intended to last approximately three weeks. For their emissary to France, the ERC selected Varian Fry, an editor for the Foreign Policy Association with ties to the International YMCA. This connection allowed Fry to secure a visa to France at a time when they were difficult to obtain, as well as give him a cover for his rescue work. Soon after arriving in Marseilles on August 4, 1940, Fry assembled a staff and established a legal French relief organization, the Centre Americain de Secours (American Relief Center), to serve as a cover for their illegal activities. As word spread that an American had come with visas to help them escape, the refugees flocked to his office, and it quickly became clear that Fry could not complete his mission in the allotted time, nor limit his assistance to the names on the list. Fry and his staff did their utmost for the desperate refugees. They dispensed modest allowances, helped the refugees find places to stay, assisted them in securing legal and false documents, sought to obtain the release of those held in internment camps, and explored escape routes out of France. To find respite from the crush of their responsibilities, Fry and some of his staff rented a villa on the outskirts of Marseilles. They were soon joined at the Villa Air-Bel by surrealist writer Andre Breton and former Russian revolutionary Victor Serge, who were also waiting to leave France. In December 1940, the villa was raided by French police, who detained Fry and his colleagues on a ship in the harbor for several days during the visit of Marshal Petain. The following month Fry's American passport expired, and the State Department, which disapproved of his high-handed activities, refused to renew it. Fry decided to continue his mission, nonetheless, though he knew he faced ever-increasing hostility from both the American and French authorities. By the time he was expelled from France on August 27, 1941, Fry had spent thirteen months in the country. He and his colleagues had spirited more than 1,500 refugees from France and provided support to 2,500 others. Among the refugees he saved were the artists Marc Chagall, Max Ernst, Andre Masson and Jacques Lipchitz; the writers Heinrich Mann, Lion Feuchtwanger and Franz Werfel; the scientists Otto Meyerhof and Jacques Hadamard; and the political scientist Hannah Arendt. Varian Fry was recognized by Yad Vashem as one of the Righteous Among the Nations in 1994.
[Greenberg, Karen J. Columbia University Library, New York: the Varian Fry papers: the Fort Ontario Emergency Refugee Shelter papers. New York: Garland, 1990; Gold, Mary Jayne. Crossroads Marseilles 1940. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1980.]
Joseph Schachter is the son of Chaja Gitla (Jagid) and Salomon Schachter. He was born March 10, 1931 in Vienna, where his parents had moved from Poland in 1925. His father owned a retail textile business on the Tandlmarktgasse in the II district. Joseph had three siblings: Zalman (b. 1924), Dorthea (b. 1932) and Adelaide (b. 1934). In the fall of 1938 Salomon was deported from German-annexed Austria to the Polish border town of Zbaszyn, and his business and assets were confiscated by the Nazi regime. Not long afterwards, he made his way back to Vienna illegally and arranged to flee with his two sons to Belgium. Chaja and the two girls joined them several months later. Through a cousin living in New York, contact was made with the influential Jewish congressman Sol Bloom. By means of a private member's bill passed in 1939-40, Bloom was able to arrange for a waiver of the already filled Polish quota for the six members of the Schachter family. Visas were issued on their behalf in Belgium in the late spring of 1940. However, before the Schachters could arrange passage out of the country, the Germans invaded and they were forced to flee to the south of France, where their visas were no longer valid. There, the family was interned by the French authorities for several months, first at the Chateau de Fremont near Montlucon, and subsequently at Remoulins near Point Gard. The Schachters were then released in order to revalidate their visas in Marseilles. Eventually, new visas were issued over the signature of US Vice Consul Hiram Bingham IV, and in February 1941 the Schachter family boarded the French ship Ipanema. The ship plied its route from Marseilles to Oran, Casablanca, Dakar, Martinique and the US Virgin Islands. Two more ship voyages brought the Jewish refugee family to Puerto Rico and New York, where they arrived in April 1941. Salomon Schachter was the only one of his family of seven siblings to survive; Chaja lost one of her siblings.