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US Army regulation uniform with a 63rd infantry sleeve patch worn by a Jewish soldier

Object | Accession Number: 2011.447.11.2 a-c

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    US Army regulation uniform with a 63rd infantry sleeve patch worn by a Jewish soldier

    Overview

    Brief Narrative
    U.S. Army issue tan dress shirt and trousers with a cloth belt worn by Sidney Cooley while he was serving as an officer in the 63rd Infantry Division in the United States and Europe from 1943 - 1945. Nicknamed the Blood and Fire Division, the 63rd’s insignia is inspired by a Winston Churchill quote: “the enemy would bleed and burn in expiation of their crime against humanity.” On January 1, 1945, Sidney’s Division was deployed to Marseilles, France, and quickly advanced north into Germany. The 63rd Infantry crossed the Siegfried Line and fought through central Germany, arriving in Landsberg am Lech by April. Sidney was promoted and assigned to General Louis Hibb’s staff. On May 7, 1945, Germany surrendered. Sidney was promoted to Captain, assigned to the Third Army, and placed on occupational duty in the American zone. He was selected to serve as the deputy military governor in Bayreuth. He assisted with regional rebuilding efforts and with the de-Nazification program. Sidney, a lawyer by training, served as prosecutor for the U.S. military government in Bayreuth, as well as a judge, hearing approximately 1,800 cases involving civilian violations of military government. As a Yiddish speaking, Jewish American official, Sidney’s presence in Bayreuth attracted many displaced Holocaust survivors looking for a place to settle while waiting to emigrate. Among his efforts to help the community, was the establishment of an agrarian training program to train more than 300 hopeful Palestinian settlers and prepare them for life as farmers. Sidney worked very closely with the Jewish community and when he left Bayreuth, they thanked him with an eloquent citation.
    Date
    use:  approximately 1943 June-approximately 1945 May
    Geography
    use: Europe
    use: United States
    Credit Line
    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of the Hatikvah Holocaust Education Center
    Markings
    a. collar interior, cloth tag, machine stitched, dark brown thread : Regulation / OFFICER’S SHIRT / FORM FITTING / by / Bartlay / DRY CLEAN ONLY
    b. front, center, zipper pull, engraved : TALON
    Contributor
    Subject: Sidney M. Cooley
    Manufacturer: Bartlay
    Biography
    Sidney Milton Cooley was born on December 21, 1913, in Springfield, Massachusetts, to a Jewish couple, Moses Louis and Sadie F. Cooley. Moses was born on March 24, 1873, in Kletsk, Belarus, to Jacob and Rivka Bearg Koolesh (later Cooley). He had two brothers and a sister. His family immigrated to the United States around 1900. Sadie was born on July 1, 1885, in Russia, to Itzik and Ruth Bearg Brodnitzky (later Broad). She had three sisters and three brothers. Her family immigrated to the United States around 1903. On October 27, 1908, Moses married Sadie in Springfield. Moses was a merchant and ran a dry goods store. Sidney had three older brothers. Philip (1909-1910) and Michael (1912), who both died young, and Edward (1911 -1998). On January 21, 1932, Sidney’s 58 year old father, Moses, died. Sidney graduated from high school and attended college. He worked as a manager in a tire shop, a piano player, and an orchestra conductor. In 1940, he earned a law degree from Northeastern University and was admitted to the bar. He and his brother Edward, also a lawyer, opened their own law practice, Cooley & Cooley. His mother married a family friend, Max Schreck (1883-1963.)

    Soon after the December 7, 1941, attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States entered World War II. On June 8, 1942, Sidney was drafted into the US Army and sent to Officer Candidate School at Camp Lee in Virginia. On April 30, 1943, he was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant and in June, he was assigned to the 63rd Infantry Division, nicknamed Blood and Fire. His Division spent more than a year training in Mississippi. On January 1, 1945, Sidney’s Division was deployed to Marseilles, France. The Division moved north to Sarreguemines and crossed the Saar River into Germany on February 17. The 63rd advanced across the Siegfried Line and through many cities, including Worms and Mannheim. By April, the Division was in Landsberg am Lech. Sidney was promoted and assigned to General Louis Hibb’s staff as a division transportation officer.

    On May 7, 1945, Germany surrendered. Many of Sidney’s fellow soldiers returned to the US, but because of his law degree, he was held back and reassigned to the occupational forces in the American Zone. He was promoted to Captain and transferred to the Third Army. Sidney was selected to serve as deputy military governor in Bayreuth, where he assisted with the de-Nazification program and the rebuilding of the region. In this capacity, 33 year old Sidney served as prosecutor for the U.S. military government in occupied Germany, as well as a judge, hearing approximately 1,800 cases involving civilian violations of military government. Sidney’s presence in Bayreuth attracted many Holocaust survivors, who were told about him by an itinerant rabbi. Many of these displaced persons flocked to Bayreuth in order to be under the protection of a Jewish American government official that spoke Yiddish and was sympathetic to their situation. Sidney spent much of his time finding housing for these displaced concentration camp survivors and helped them receive valuable training and much needed supplies. Sidney settled 300 displaced people into the commandeered former estate of Julius Streicher, the editor of the Nazi newspaper Der Sturmer. He helped turn the estate into a school to train the residents in agrarian work in preparation for their planned immigration to Palestine. This training program was so successful that it was repeated throughout the American zone. Sidney was present for the first post-war, Jewish wedding and the birth of the first Jewish child in Bayreuth. Before returning to the US in 1946, many of the survivors in Bayreuth presented Sidney with a citation “thanking him for all he did to give them hope and help them return to life."

    Sidney returned to the US. On June 27, 1946, he married Anne Violet “Pudsie” Sachse (1921-2012) in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. In September, Sidney was honorably discharged as a Major. He received many medals and awards for his service, including a Bronze Star and Meritorious Service Unit Plaque. Sidney and Pudsie settled in Springfield and had three children, 2 sons and a daughter. Sidney returned to practicing law with his brother, Edward, at their own law firm. In 1960, he was appointed special justice in Franklin District Court in Greenfield. In 1973, he was appointed presiding justice for the Hampden District Court in Westfield. On April 17, 1978, Sidney’s 92 year old mother, Sadie, died. Sidney and his wife, Pudsie, were active members of many community organizations and their temple. Sidney was also an active member of his chapter of the Jewish War Veterans of the United States of America. In 1983, Sidney retired from the bench and returned to his law firm. In 2013, he retired. Sidney, aged 100, died on January 7, 2014, in Springfield.

    Physical Details

    Classification
    Clothing and Dress
    Physical Description
    a. Men's long sleeved, light brown cotton shirt with a reinforced, pointed collar, 1 button shoulder straps, and 2 button cuffs. The standard front placket has 6 finished buttonholes with corresponding brown plastic buttons, and is flanked by 2 square patch breast pockets with a 1 button flaps on the upper chest. The left pocket is divided by a vertical seam, which creates a 1 inch wide pen slot within. The straight edged shirt bottom has a slit on each side. The inner collar band is lined with satiny, light brown cloth and the armhole seams have light brown cloth binding. A manufacturer’s tag is sewn below the collar and an ID number is stitched into the placket bottom. A teardrop shaped, light green, machine embroidered patch with an upward pointing, red tipped gold sword, superimposed on a 5 tongued red flame is stitched to the left shoulder. A button is missing from the top of the placket and the right cuff. The collar is worn and there are stains and paint remnants throughout.

    b. Dark green wool elastique trousers with 7 belt loops spaced around the waistband and a concealed front zipper fly with 2 buttons. The zipper is silver colored metal and all buttons are brown plastic with finished buttonholes. There are 2 diagonal slash pockets on the upper side hips and a small slot pocket for a watch on the front right, below the waistband. There are 2 welt pockets sewn on the upper back, each with a pointed top flap and a 1 button closure. The pants have a plain front, finished seams, and hemmed, cuff-less pant legs. The interior waistband is lined with dark green twill cloth and edged with white cloth binding. The reinforced fly is lined with the same green cloth used for the pocket pouches. The back seam and crotch have been altered, the pockets and fly have been repaired, and an ID number is stitched into the front and back waistband. There are 3 missing buttons: 1 from the fly and both from the back pockets.

    c. Dark brown, heavyweight cloth belt with a rectangular, shiny, gold colored slide buckle at one looped end, and a separate cloth loop stitched in place beside it. A brown painted snap socket is sewn to the belt beside the loop. The belt cloth is folded along its length so the two edges meet along the back center in a long seam and the other end is pointed with a rounded tip and remnants of thread where a snap was attached and is now missing.
    Dimensions
    a: Height: 30.500 inches (77.47 cm) | Width: 18.000 inches (45.72 cm)
    b: Height: 25.125 inches (63.818 cm) | Width: 15.125 inches (38.418 cm)
    c: Height: 41.250 inches (104.775 cm) | Width: 2.000 inches (5.08 cm)
    Materials
    a : cotton, cloth, thread, net, plastic
    b : wool, cloth, thread, metal
    c : cloth, thread, metal, paint
    Inscription
    a. collar interior, handwritten, black ink : P63 / LT. COOLEY
    a. placket interior, bottom left, handstitched, white and green thread : (S?)14
    b. front, left waistband, handstitched, white thread : R4
    b. back, right waistband, handstitched, white thread : Rh
    b. interior, left pocket, handwritten, black ink : P62 / LT. Cooley
    b. interior, back left pocket, handwritten, black ink : 998 / 50M / MM8M539
    b. interior, back right pocket tag, printed and handwritten, black ink : P 52622

    Rights & Restrictions

    Conditions on Access
    No restrictions on access
    Conditions on Use
    No restrictions on use

    Keywords & Subjects

    Administrative Notes

    Provenance
    The uniform was donated to the Hatikvah Holocaust Education Center in Springfield, MA, by Judge Sidney Cooley. It was transferred to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 2011, following the closure of the Hatikvah Holocaust Education Center in 2010.
    Funding Note
    The cataloging of this artifact has been supported by a grant from the Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany.
    Record last modified:
    2023-08-25 17:18:26
    This page:
    https:​/​/collections.ushmm.org​/search​/catalog​/irn106404

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