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Box owned by a German Jewish refugee

Object | Accession Number: 1999.100.14.2

Box owned by Norbert Wollheim. Due to the anti-Jewish policies of the Nazi dictatorship that ruled Germany beginning in 1933, Norbert, 20, who lived in Berlin, was expelled from law school in 1933 and fired from his job in 1938. That year, he helped arrange for Jewish children to escape Germany on kindertransports. In February 1942, he and his wife Rose and 3 year old son Uriel were deported to Auschwitz where Rose and Uriel were killed. Norbert was sent to Auschwitz III-Monowitz (Buna) as slave labor for I.G. Farben. On January 18, 1945, he underwent a death march from Auschwitz to Gleiwitz. From there, the prisoners were sent to Czechoslovakia, Austria, back to Czechoslovakia, and finally to Berlin on January 31. They were taken to Heinkel, a satellite camp of Sachsenhausen-Oranienburg. On April 20, the camp was evacuated by forced march. On May 2, Norbert fled to nearby Schwerin (Mecklenburg), where he was liberated by American troops on May 3, 1945. Norbert did not want to return to Soviet-controlled Berlin so he went first to Lubeck and then to Bergen-Belsen displaced persons camp in Germany. With Joseph Rosensaft, he organized the Central Committee of Liberated Jews in the British Zone. He married Frieda (Friedel) Senta Löwenberg, a German Jewish survivor and had two children. In the late 1940s, Norbert was a witness during the Nuremberg trials. In late 1950, Norbert and his family moved to the United States. They were twice arrested by the immigration authorities and threatened with deportation. Burt in 1952, they were legally admitted to the US. In 1951, Norbert successfully sued I.G. Farben for compensate for two years’ work as a slave laborer. The law suit led to a settlement with I.G. Farben that established a fund of $ 6.43 million to compensate other Jewish laborers.

Object Type
Boxes (lcsh)
Credit Line
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum collection, gift of Charlotte Wollheim
Record last modified: 2022-07-28 18:23:40
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