Advanced Search

Learn About The Holocaust

Special Collections

My Saved Research




Skip to main content

Flat file of the type used in Łódź Ghetto

Object | Accession Number: 1990.285.10

Search this record's additional resources, such as finding aids, documents, or transcripts.

No results match this search term.
Check spelling and try again.

results are loading

0 results found for “keyward

    Flat file of the type used in Łódź Ghetto

    Please select from the following options:


    Brief Narrative
    Flat file, possibly for a shoemaker, similar to those used by Jewish forced laborers in the Łódź Ghetto in German-occupied Poland from May 1940 to summer 1944. Łódź was occupied by Germany a week after the September 1939 invasion of Poland. It was renamed Litzmannstadt and in February 1940, the Jewish population of about 160,000 people was confined to a small, sealed-off ghetto. All residents had to work, and 85 percent of the ghetto population labored in nearly 100 factories. The major ones produced textiles, including uniforms for the German Army. Occupying authorities seized much of the specialized machinery from the Jewish population, forcing them to use hand techniques for production. Due to severe overcrowding and scarce food, disease and starvation were common. The Judenrat (Jewish Council) administered the ghetto for the Germans, and chairman Mordechai Rumkowski thought hard work and high output would preserve the ghetto. However, in January 1942, mass deportations to Chelmno killing center began; half the residents were murdered by the end of the year. In summer 1944, Łódź, the last ghetto in Poland, was destroyed and the remaining Jews were sent to Chelmno and Auschwitz-Birkenau killing centers.
    use:  approximately 1900-approximately 1945
    acquired: Poland
    Credit Line
    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection

    Physical Details

    Tools and Equipment
    Hand tools
    Hand tools.
    Physical Description
    Heavy, gray-colored, metal file consisting of a long, rectangular bar with a rounded surface, flat sides, and tapered ends. The top and bottom surfaces are wavy and rough-textured, but worn down from use. On one end, the bar curves upward about 45-degrees, and both ends are flat and narrow. The surface is heavily corroded throughout.
    overall: Height: 10.500 inches (26.67 cm) | Width: 1.000 inches (2.54 cm) | Depth: 0.375 inches (0.953 cm)
    overall : metal

    Rights & Restrictions

    Conditions on Access
    No restrictions on access
    Conditions on Use
    No restrictions on use

    Keywords & Subjects

    Geographic Name
    Poland. (Łódź, Poland)

    Administrative Notes

    The file was acquired by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 1990.
    Record last modified:
    2023-05-31 12:54:35
    This page:

    Download & Licensing

    In-Person Research

    Contact Us