Advanced Search

Learn About The Holocaust

Special Collections

My Saved Research




Skip to main content

Brown knit hat with a J triangle patch and initials worn by a Yugoslavian political prisoner

Object | Accession Number: 2011.174.2

Brown cap with two patches worn by Ivan (Johann) Bole, 29, in Buchenwald concentration camp from November 1944 until April 1945. The J (for Jugoslawisch) and the red inverted triangle indicated the wearer was a Yugoslavian political prisoner. The striped patch represents the Yugoslavian flag. Ivan, a Catholic, was a lawyer in Laibach, Yugoslavia (Ljubljana, Slovenia) when the Axis powers, led by Nazi Germany, invaded in April 1941. Laibach was annexed by Italy. Ivan went to Venice with the Slovenian Red Cross. In September 1944, he was arrested by the German SS for smuggling a radio transmitter into Trieste. In November, Ivan was sent to Buchenwald in Germany and assigned prisoner number 67186. He was assigned to work commando A6 in Wanz-leben am See. The camp was liberated on April 11, 1945, by US troops. Germany surrendered on May 7. Ivan lived as a displaced person in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, and emigrated to America in 1950.

approximately 1944 November-1945 April  (use)
use : Buchenwald (Concentration camp); Weimar (Thuringia, Germany)
Dress Accessories
Credit Line
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of Lorraine DeMaio
Expand all
Record last modified: 2018-10-24 14:05:45
This page: