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Pair of white leather Masonic gloves with button cuffs owned by a Hungarian Jewish emigre

Object | Accession Number: 2010.81.4 a-b

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    Pair of white leather Masonic gloves with button cuffs owned by a Hungarian Jewish emigre

    Overview

    Brief Narrative
    White leather ceremonial gloves that originally belonged to Vilmos Deutsch. They were acquired through his membership in the Freemason society. White kid gloves were presented to newly initiated members; a man's pair for the member and a woman's pair for his wife or betrothed. They were symbolic and not intended for use and represented the ideal that the work of his hands should be pure and spotless. Vilmos, who died in 1935, was from a large, Orthodox Jewish family in Budapest, Hungary. The gloves were inherited by his daughter, Lenke. In March 1944, Hungary was occupied by Nazi Germany. Lenke's husband, Bela, was deported in July to a concentration camp where he was killed. In November, Lenke went into hiding with her daughter Kati and her children, and her son-in-law’s family. The city was liberated by Soviet forces in January 1945. Lenke brought the gloves with her when she left Hungary with Kati and her family in January 1949 for the United States.
    Date
    received:  approximately 1935 February
    emigration:  1949 September 21
    Geography
    received: Budapest (Hungary)
    Credit Line
    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of Peter Veres
    Markings
    a. interior, logo, stamped, purple ink : Hungarian text
    b. interior, stamped twice, black ink : 4741
    b. interior, stamped, black ink : 4 9508
    Contributor
    Original owner: Vilmos Deutsch
    Subject: Vilmos Deutsch
    Subject: Lenke Krausz
    Subject: Peter J. Veres
    Biography
    Vilmos Deutsch was born in 1855 in Tolna, Hungary, to a poor family. He moved to Budapest and married Iren Muller, the daughter of a wealthy landowner and shipping merchant. Vilmos became a successful grain dealer and the couple had six children, all born in Budapest: Laszlo in 1884, Berta in 1885, Anni in 1886, Lenke in 1887, Armin in 1890, and Renee in 1892. He was an Orthodox Jew but did not force his children to adhere to an Orthodox lifestyle.
    Vilmos was very involved in charity work and provided money, clothing, and food for the poor. He started an organization called Hanna, which housed orphaned Jewish children and fed the poor. It was under religious supervision and served Kosher food. During WWI, he opened a soup kitchen called a menza [free food for the poor], in the ground floor of their apartment building. His wife and daughters prepared the food and it operated throughout the war. He was a member of the Freemasons, an illegal, secret fraternal society.
    Renee died in 1910 at 18, Iren on November 29, 1922 at 58, Laszlo in 1934, at 50, Berta in 1964 at 79, Anni in 1947 at 88, all in Budapest, and Lenke in 1968 at 81 in New York City, and Armin in 1954 at 64, in Sydney, Australia. Vilmos had diabetes in later life and died on February 18, 1935, in Budapest at age 80.
    Lenke Deutsch was born in 1887 in Budapest, Hungary, to Orthodox Jewish parents. Her father Vilmos , a grain dealer, was born in 1855 in Tolna, Hungary, and her mother, Iren, was born in 1864 in Budapest. Lenke had 5 siblings, all born in Budapest: Laszlo in 1884, Berta in 1885, Anni in 1886, Armin in 1890, and Renee in 1892. Her parents were Orthodox but they did not require their children to be observant. She married Bela Krausz, a lawyer, on March 20, 1910, in Budapest, and they had 2 children, Kati, born on April 16, 1911, and Gabor, on March 20, 1915, both in Budapest. The family kept a Kosher house and observed the holidays.

    On March 19, 1944, German forces occupied Hungary and anti-Jewish decrees were put in place; Jews had to wear Star of David armbands, move into designated buildings, and deportations to concentration camps began. Bela became ill and was admitted to the hospital on April 25; the next day, his first notice to report to an internment camp came, but he was spared as he was still in the hospital. On May 3, 1944, apartments and houses belonging to Jews were registered and labeled with a yellow star. Lenke, Bela, Kati, and their grandson Peter, moved in with Kati’s in laws, Armin and Sari Veres, on May 11. During bombing raids, the family would hide in the basement. By June 23, all Jews had to move into yellow star buildings, one family per room. The Veres apartment was not in a yellow star building, and both families moved in with a Veres family friend. On May 31, Bela was again arrested and detained; Lenke and Kati visited him on June 19. Her second grandson, Paul, was born on June 21, 1944. Lenke received her last communication from Bela on July 1, before he was deported to an unknown camp and murdered.

    On October 16, 1944, Peter was sent to live with 2 Swiss Catholic women and stayed with them for three months. On November 3, Kati, Lenke, and Paul went into hiding at the Hotel Pannonia. On December 15, a friend got them an official permit designating them as refugees. They were able to move into an apartment and no longer wore their armbands. The siege of Budapest started on December 24, and the family took shelter in the basement. On December 27, Lenke had gallstone attack and almost died. Pest was liberated by the Soviet army on January 14, 1945. Lenke, her daughter’s family, and Armin and Sari, were reunited and moved back to the bomb damaged Veres apartment. On May 4, Lenke and Kati’s family moved back to her pre-occupation family home in Buda.

    Lenke decided to leave Hungary with Kati and her family. Her son-in-law, George, bribed a contact with money and 2 cars in exchange for passports. In January 1949, Katie, George, and the boys boarded a train for Milan, Italy. Lenke stayed behind to close up the house and liquidate their belongings. She left to join her family in Milan on January 29. Kati and her family left for the United States and arrived in New York on March 29, 1949. Lenke stayed in Italy; she would get a preferred visa once her son, Gabor, who lived in the US, became a citizen. She received her visa on August 10 and arrived in New York on September 21. She lived in the same building with Kati and her family and became US citizen on April 11, 1955.

    Lenke died on December 2, 1968, at age 81. George died on February 1, 1974, at age 67, Kati on February 20, 1994, at age 82, and Gabor on January 22, 1999, at age 83, all in New York City.
    Peter Jaos Veres was born on October 23, 1938, in London. His father George, a businessman, was born on September 7, 1906, and his mother, Kati, was born on April 16, 1911, both in Budapest, Hungary. On March 13, 1938, Nazi Germany annexed Austria and news of Jewish persecution filtered into Hungary. Kati was pregnant at the time. George decided the baby would be born in England so he would have a British passport and not be identified as a Hungarian Jew. On August 24, Kati left for London; George arrived in October. After the child, Peter, was born, he was baptized as an Anglican and the family returned to Budapest on November 11.
    On March 19, 1944, German forces occupied Hungary and anti-Jewish decrees were put in place; Jews had to wear Star of David armbands, move into designated buildings, and deportations to concentration camps began. Since 1939, George had been in and out of forced labor camps and after the German invasion he was interred at a camp in Budapest. On May 3, 1944, apartments and houses belonging to Jews were registered and labeled with a yellow star. Peter, his mother, and grandmother Lenke moved in with his paternal grandparents on May 11. During bombing raids, the family would hide in the basement. His brother, Paul, was born on June 21, 1944, in Budapest. By June 23, all Jews had to move into yellow star buildings, one family per room. The Veres apartment was not in a yellow star building, and they had to move in with a family friend. Peter, being under six years old, was not required to wear a yellow star. Every morning he walked to the corner to buy milk for his baby brother, and his mother watched him from their apartment balcony to make sure he was safe.
    Peter, as a British national, was under the protection of the Swiss consulate. George arranged for Peter to live with two Swiss Catholic women, Elizabeth Baeriswyl and her niece, Mimi. Peter left his mother on October 16, 1944, and stayed with them for three months. During that time he posed as a relative, went to church, and attended Sunday school. His father would periodically escape from his labor camp and arrange to see Peter in a public place. They would not speak, just have visual contact. On November 3, 1944, Kati, Lenke, and Peter went into hiding; George escaped from the camp on December 12, 1944, and hid in a Swiss emergency hospital. On January 14, 1945, Pest was liberated by the Soviet army and Peter was reunited with his family.
    After liberation, the Veres family and Lenke decided to leave Hungary. In January 1949, they left Budapest for Milan, Italy. They sailed on the M/S Sobieski from Genoa, Italy, for the United States. Lenke stayed in Italy and sailed on a later date. On ship, Peter played shuffleboard and watched American movies. They arrived in New York City on March 29, 1949. They spent the night on Ellis Island and officially entered the U.S. on March 30. Due to the Displaced Persons Act passed on June 25, 1948, the family was able to obtain Permanent Residency Cards and remain in the U.S. Peter, as a British national, was considered an alien and did not fall under the protection of the Act. He had to go to Canada and reenter the U.S. under a different visa. On June 8, 1959, he became a U.S. citizen.
    He moved to California, married, and had 2 children. George died on February 1, 1967, at age 67, Lenke on December 2, 1968, at 81, and Kati on February 20, 1994, at 82, all in Manhattan.

    Physical Details

    Language
    Hungarian
    Classification
    Dress Accessories
    Category
    Handwear
    Object Type
    Gloves (lcsh)
    Physical Description
    a. White leather machine stitched 3 button length left hand glove. There is white stitching around the perimeter and 3 stitched lines on the back. The palm side of the cuff has a center vent with 3 light brown plastic buttons and corresponding button holes. The buttons are reinforced with white cloth in the interior; the button holes with leather. Stamped on the interior are numbers and a manufacturer’s symbol encircled by Hungarian text.
    b. White leather machine stitched 3 button length left hand glove. There is white stitching around the perimeter and 3 stitched lines on the back. The palm side of the cuff has a center vent with 3 light brown plastic buttons and corresponding button holes. The buttons are reinforced with white cloth in the interior; the button holes with leather. Stamped on the interior are numbers and an inscribed size.
    Dimensions
    a: Height: 10.750 inches (27.305 cm) | Width: 2.625 inches (6.668 cm)
    b: Height: 10.750 inches (27.305 cm) | Width: 2.500 inches (6.35 cm)
    Materials
    a : leather, resin, thread, plastic, cloth, ink
    b : leather, resin, thread, plastic, cloth, ink
    Inscription
    b. interior, handwritten, black ink : 6 1/4

    Rights & Restrictions

    Conditions on Access
    No restrictions on access
    Conditions on Use
    No restrictions on use

    Keywords & Subjects

    Administrative Notes

    Provenance
    The Masonic leather gloves were donated to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 2010 by Peter Veres.
    Funding Note
    The cataloging of this artifact has been supported by a grant from the Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany.
    Record last modified:
    2022-07-28 21:51:07
    This page:
    https:​/​/collections.ushmm.org​/search​/catalog​/irn47172

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