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Antiaircraft shell fragments found after an air raid on Bordeaux by a young Jewish refugee

Object | Accession Number: 2005.379.10 a-b

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    Antiaircraft shell fragments found after an air raid on Bordeaux by a young Jewish refugee

    Overview

    Brief Narrative
    Shell fragments recovered by 12 year old Joseph Schadur in their yard in Bruges, France, during his family's flight from Nazi-dominated Europe. Joseph scratched the date on the fragment himself. The Germans stationed several anti-aircraft batteries in Bruges, a small village near Bordeaux, which was a frequent RAF bombing target because of the port installations.The shells were fired from German guns at British bomber planes over Bordeaux on November 23, 1940. Joseph's father, Michel, left Germany in 1935 because the Nazi government's anti-Jewish policies were making it dangerous to live there. His wife, Manja, their 2 children, Joseph and his 4 year old sister, Benita, and his mother joined him in Antwerp, Belgium, in January 1936. After the Germans occupied Belgium in May 1940, the family was forced to flee once more. Traveling by private car, they eventually made their way to Lisbon, Portugal. They sailed for New York on board the SS Exeter on February 21, 1941.
    Date
    found:  1940 November 23
    emigration:  1941 February 21
    Geography
    found: Bruges (Gironde, France)
    Credit Line
    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of Joseph Shadur
    Contributor
    Subject: Joseph Shadur
    Biography
    Joseph Schadur was born on April 23, 1928, in Riga, Latvia, to Manja (Masha) Hasenson and Michel Schadur. His parents moved to Berlin, Germany, in 1927, shortly after their marriage on June 12, but his mother returned to Riga for Joseph’s birth to be with her family. He had one sister, Benita, born in Berlin in 1932. They were not a particularly religious family, and attended synagogue only on theJewish high holidays. His father worked in the wholesale fruit industry. He travelled widely and was fluent in several languages. Hitler came to power in 1933, and by 1935, Michel’s business began to decline due to antisemitic boycotts and restrictions. That year while in Belgium on business, Michel decided not to return to Germany. With much difficulty, Manja obtained temporary tourist visas and she and the children joined him in Belgium on January 1, 1936. Michel was able to re-establish his business. The children attended a Tachkemonia Orthodox Jewish kindergarten and boys’ school. Joseph later transferred to a private French school. They spent the summer months at a children’s home in Oostduinkerke, where they explored the dunes and the bulwarks that remained from World War I.
    In May 1940, Germany occupied Belgium, and the family had to flee once more. They left by private car and reached Bordeaux before the French surrender to Germany in late June. For seven months, they managed to get by in Bruges, a country village near Bordeaux. With the assistance of Joseph’s maternal aunt, Gitta, who had emigrated from Germany to the United States in 1939, they received immigration and transit visas. The family left for the Spanish border on December 14, 1940. After two month in Lisbon, Portugal, they sailed on the SS Exeter to New York on February 21, 1941. From there, they proceeded to St. Paul, Minnesota, where Gitta and other relatives had already settled. The family changed their last name to Shadur.
    Michel returned to Europe for a few years in the immediate postwar period to work for UNRRA, the United Nations Refugee Relief Association, chiefly at Backnang displaced persons camp. Joseph attended the University of Minnesota. In 1950, he moved to Israel where he married Yehudit, who would become an internationally recognized artist for her rediscovery of the art of Jewish paper cutting. Joseph passed away, age 77, in October 2005.

    Physical Details

    Classification
    Weapons
    Category
    Ammunition
    Physical Description
    a. Silver colored metal shell fragment with a rounded top that widens downward to a jagged edge.
    b. Silver colored, nearly flat, metal shell fragment with irregularly shaped sides and jagged edges. A date is incised in the center of one side.
    Dimensions
    a: Height: 1.250 inches (3.175 cm) | Width: 1.375 inches (3.493 cm) | Depth: 1.500 inches (3.81 cm)
    b: Height: 1.250 inches (3.175 cm) | Width: 1.875 inches (4.763 cm) | Depth: 0.500 inches (1.27 cm)
    Materials
    a : metal
    b : metal
    Inscription
    b. side, center, incised : 23 M 40

    Rights & Restrictions

    Conditions on Access
    No restrictions on access
    Conditions on Use
    No restrictions on use

    Keywords & Subjects

    Administrative Notes

    Provenance
    The shell fragments were donated to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 2005 by Joseph Shadur.
    Record last modified:
    2022-07-28 18:28:55
    This page:
    https:​/​/collections.ushmm.org​/search​/catalog​/irn517554

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