Advanced Search

Learn About The Holocaust

Special Collections

My Saved Research




Skip to main content

Łódź ghetto scrip, 2 mark note, in 3 pieces acquired by Polish Jewish survivor

Object | Accession Number: 2003.460.2 a-c

Search this record's additional resources, such as finding aids, documents, or transcripts.

No results match this search term.
Check spelling and try again.

results are loading

0 results found for “keyward

    Łódź ghetto scrip, 2 mark note, in 3 pieces acquired by Polish Jewish survivor

    Please select from the following options:


    Brief Narrative
    Łódź (Litzmannstadt) Ghetto scrip, receipt value of 2 (zwei) marks acquired by Edgar Gaerber, possibly when his family moved to Łódź in 1945. Ed, age 10, and his parents Dr. Bernard and Fanka Gaerber fled Lvov, Poland (L'viv, Ukraine] during the invasion by Germany in September 1939. The Soviet Union invaded from the east and the invaders divided the country; L'vov was in Soviet territory. In June 1941, Germany retook the region. The German occupation was brutal. Thousands of Jews were murdered in pogroms by local Ukrainians. In late 1941, Ed and his family had to relocate to the ghetto. In March 1942, the Germans began mass deportations to Belzec killing center. Ed's family got false identification papers and went into hiding, moving around to different towns. In July 1944, L'vov was liberated by the Soviet Army. In 1945, Ed and his parents moved to Łódź, Poland. The war ended when Germany surrendered on May 7. The family emigrated to Canada in 1949.
    issue:  1940 May 15
    issue: Litzmannstadt-Getto (Łódź, Poland); Łódź (Poland)
    Credit Line
    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of Ed Gaerber
    b. face, center, brown ink : Quittung / über / Zwei Mark / [De]r Aelteste der Juden / in Litzmannstadt / M. Rumkowski [[Receipt for Two Mark / The Eldest of the Jews in Litzmannstadt M Rumkowski]
    a. face, lower left, brown ink : Litzmannstadt, den 15 Mai 1940
    b. face, lower right corner, brown ink : 2
    c. face, serial number, upper right, orange ink : Nº 067148
    a. back, center, brown ink : [Q]uittung / über / Zwei-Mark
    a. back, right center, brown ink : 2
    b. back, left center, brown ink : 2
    b. back, lower left corner, brown ink : 2
    Subject: Ed Gaerber
    Issuer: Der Aelteste der Juden in Litzmannstadt
    Edgar (Ed) Gaerber was born on August 28, 1929, in Lvov, Poland (Lʹviv, Ukraine) to Dr. Bernard and Fanka Rosenmann Gaerber. The family lived in Zloczow, about forty miles from Lvov, where Dr. Gaerber practiced medicine. He had met Fanka in Vienna while studying medicine. The Jewish population of the town numbered 6000, a majority of the population. The family was well off and Edgar’s father owned one of only four cars in town. In 1938, Fanka’s mother came to live with the family.

    On September 1, 1939, Nazi Germany invaded Poland. In two weeks Lvov was surrounded and, a week later, the Soviet Union invaded from the east. The family left for Zaleszczyki planning to cross the border into Romania. At the crossing they met Jan Kwapinski, a Socialist and former mayor of Łódź, Poland. He convinced them not to flee Poland and that the Soviets would protect them. They returned to Lvov where the Soviets immediately confiscated Dr. Gaerber’s automobile. His medical practice was closed and he had to work at a clinic. Most businesses were nationalized and Jewish organizations were closed. Edgar attended a Russian school. Kwapinski stayed with the Gaerber family for a few months, then was deported to Siberia.

    In June 1941, Germany retook the region when it invaded the Soviet Union. Edgar and his mother were in nearby Kalusz during the German invasion. They went to Lvov but later made their way back to Zloczow. The German occupation was brutal. Immediately after German troops entered Zloczow, the local Ukrainians organized a pogrom, during which 2000 Jews were murdered. Labor camps were set up and Jews were taken for forced labor. The Gaerber family had to leave their home and moved to an apartment above a drugstore. Edgar’s father prepared a hiding place between the floor of their apartment and the ceiling of the store and the four hid there during a roundup. In the spring 1942, Dr. Gaerber wrote to the daughter of Jan Kwapinski in Warsaw and asked for help. Her husband Jerzy Strzalkowski came to Zloczow and arranged to have photographs taken to make false identity documents for the family. Edgar’s maternal grandmother was placed in hiding near Zloczow. Jerzy drove to Zloczow in a truck to pick up Edgar and his parents, along with Hela Kitaj, Fanka’s friend, whose husband was murdered in the pogrom, and take them to Warsaw. They stayed for 3 or 4 nights in Belzec where a horrible smell permeated the air. They assumed identities as Roman Catholics, Dr Gaerber was Wladyslaw Sobieraj, a bookkeeper, Fanka was Zofia, a kindergarten teacher, and Edgar was now Wiktor, but called Garus by his parents. After a while, they moved to a nearby village, Jastrzeb. In spring1944, they found a place in Milanowek on the outskirts of Warsaw. They were discovered by the Germans and Edgar had to jump out a window. They hid elsewhere and their former Polish landlord robbed them of all valuables and they were now penniless. A Polish acquaintance gave them a key to his factory in Warsaw and they hid there. Dr. Gaerber was very sick with jaundice and even contemplated suicide. They moved to a village on the outskirts of the city, where Edgar, called Garus by his parents, stole fruit and vegetables from the neighboring farms to feed himself and his parents. Dr. Gaerber, who was a redhead, had to dye his hair black, since Polish stereotypes identified any redhead as a Jew. When they ran out of dye and could not afford more, he had to shave his head. There was a German military post on the farm where they were hiding and patrols were frequent. Dr. Gaerber had Strychnine pills ready in case they were discovered as Jews. A few weeks later, circa fall 1944, they moved again to a village near Lowicz. Edgar sold cigarettes to support the family.

    In January 1945, the Soviet Army liberated the area. Edgar, his parents, and Hela Kitaj went to Warsaw, and then to Łódź. Dr. Gaerber set up a medical practice. Edgar began high school in Łódź. He traveled on his own to Warsaw and on one trip, passengers who recognized that he was Jewish threatened to throw him out the moving train. This and news of virulent anti-semitism in Poland made it clear to the family that they could not stay in Poland. In the fall 1946, they went to Paris, France. In 1949, they immigrated to Canada and settled in Regina, Saskatchewan. His father changed his specialization to psychiatry. Ed completed high school, then obtained a degree from McGill University. In 1961, Ed married Marilyn Jacobson, a native of Halifax, Nova Scotia. They settled in Vancouver, Canada, and had three sons. Ed was deeply involved with the local Jewish community. Ed, 83, passed away on December 28, 2012.

    Physical Details

    Exchange Media
    Object Type
    Scrip (aat)
    Physical Description
    Three separated sections that reassemble to form a rectangular Łódź ghetto 2 mark note on offwhite paper printed in brown and orange ink.
    a. Nearly square paper which is the left half of the scrip, detached along the center crease. The face has a latticework underprint, an encircled Star of David in the upper left corner, and the denomination Zwei in the center. The back has a latticework background, nearly an entire 7 branched candelabrum on the left, and, to the right, the denomination 2 within a ring of 7 concentric circles. The denomination in a banner across the center is missing the Z from Zwei mark.
    b. L shaped paper which is most of the right half of the scrip, detached along the center crease, with the missing square on the upper right forming the L indent. The face has a latticework underprint, German text, a Star of David breaking the border of the rectangle outline, and a wide blank border with the denomination 2 in the lower right corner. The back has the denomination 2 within a ring of 7 concentric circles in the center, a wide blank left margin with the denomination 2 in lower left corner.
    c. Small paper square which is the detached upper left corner of the scrip. The face is blank except for the orange inked serial number. The back is blank except for a vertical strip of printed latticework and line border.
    All pieces are discolored, wrinkled, and creased with small tears and folds, and notches in the edges.
    a: Height: 2.625 inches (6.668 cm) | Width: 2.375 inches (6.033 cm)
    b: Height: 2.625 inches (6.668 cm) | Width: 2.500 inches (6.35 cm)
    c: Height: 1.250 inches (3.175 cm) | Width: 1.250 inches (3.175 cm)
    a : paper, ink
    b : paper, ink
    c : paper, ink

    Rights & Restrictions

    Conditions on Access
    No restrictions on access
    Conditions on Use
    No restrictions on use

    Keywords & Subjects

    Administrative Notes

    The scrip was donated to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 2003 by Ed Gaerber.
    Funding Note
    The cataloging of this artifact has been supported by a grant from the Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany.
    Record last modified:
    2022-07-28 18:29:41
    This page:

    Download & Licensing

    In-Person Research

    Contact Us