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Charcoal drawing of a soldier face down on the ground with caricatured faces behind him

Object | Accession Number: 2015.609.4

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    Charcoal drawing of a soldier face down on the ground with caricatured faces behind him


    Brief Narrative
    Anti-fascist charcoal drawing by Harold Lehman depicting a Spanish Civil War soldier lying face down in hilly terrain with his rifle and helmet strewn before him. Looming behind him are three caricatured heads, likely Adolf Hitler, Francisco Franco, and Benito Mussolini. Both Hitler and Mussolini offered aid to Franco and his fascist forces during the Spanish Civil War. Floating overhead is the saying “No Pasarán” which translates to “they shall not pass.” This was a slogan used by Spanish Communist leader Dolores Ibárruri during the Siege of Madrid. With the combination of the soldier, the phrase and the faces, Lehman is saying that free people would die rather than let the fascists win. The woman and child on the left are symbols of what they are fighting for. An award winning painter, muralist and sculptor, Harold Lehman was known for making political statements with his artwork. He was born and raised in New York City, but moved to Los Angeles as a teenager, attending the Otis Art Institute. While in L.A. he worked with Phil Guston, Jackson Pollock, D.A. Siqueiros, and Manuel Tolegain. In 1941, Harold moved back to New York and continued his career, working with the Public Works of Art Project (PWAP) and the Federal Art Project, both New Deal programs to employ artists. He also worked with the Treasury department and Abbott Laboratories to create War Bond advertisements, pro-American propaganda, and anti-fascist pieces.
    Spain Today
    creation:  1936-1939
    creation: New York (N.Y.)
    Credit Line
    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of Lisa Lehman Trager
    front, bottom left, handwritten, pencil : Spain Today
    front, center, handwritten charcoal : NO PASARAN [They shall not pass]
    front, bottom right, pencil : H. Lehman
    Artist: Harold Lehman
    Harold Lehman (1913-2006) was born in New York City, New York to Abraham and Rachel Lehman, immigrants from Europe who arrived in New York at the turn of the twentieth century. Early on, Harold’s father struggled to find consistent employment, working as a mailman and a vaudeville dancer. Later he found steady work as an insurance agent and then left the family and moved to California. His mother was a seamstress. Harold had a twin brother and was one of five children. Harold was part Jewish, and went through synagogue as a boy. The family lived in the West side of Brooklyn and then in the Bronx. In February 1930, Harold and his older brother Charlie moved to California to live with their father.

    In California, Harold enrolled at the Manual Arts High School in Los Angeles. There he formed lifelong friendships with future notable artists such as Phil Guston, Jackson Pollock, and Manuel Tolegain. Early in his art career, Harold worked primarily as a sculptor. He used plaster and clay as well as carving directly in stone. In 1931, after graduating from Manual Arts, Lehman won a citywide competition for a yearlong scholarship to the Otis Art Institute. In 1932, after leaving Otis, Harold focused on painting and began working with painter D.A. Siqueiros, joining his “Bloc of Painters,” a group of artists with socialist leanings. In 1933, Harold won second place in the Los Angeles Museum’s annual competition of painters and sculptors. In 1933 and 1934, Harold did work for the Public Works of Art Project (PWAP) a New Deal program to employ artists.

    In 1935, Harold felt he had gone as far as he could in Los Angeles, and returned to New York City. There he painted murals for the Federal Art Project, another New Deal program created to employ artists, and sold paintings at exhibits and shows. During this time he continued working with Siqueiros and began experimenting with different types of paints, lacquers and application methods. In 1936 and 1937, Harold created paintings opposing the Fascists and the German and Italian intervention in the Spanish Civil War. In 1939, Harold painted a mural for the World’s Fair in New York. While working with Siqueiros, Harold also designed floats for several New York City parades promoting the Allied war effort and denouncing fascism. In the fall of 1941, Harold fell while painting a mural and broke both his arms. While recuperating, Harold was called up for service by the draft board. With the combination of his broken arms, his disinclination towards violence, his inability to take orders and his work as an artist for federal programs, he was able to get a deferral.

    In 1942, Harold moved from New York City to Woodstock, NY where he created several war paintings for the Section of Fine Arts and the Treasury Department. Around this time, Harold was approached by Arnold Blanch and Reeves Lewenthal, from the Associated American Artist Gallery. Through a partnership with Associated American Artists and the United States Treasury Department, Abbott Laboratories created a program to create advertisements and illustrations for its medical journal What’s New and for the United States Government’s War Department through their Schools-At-War program. They provided Harold with poster themes and he was free to create within that setting. The series of posters was created through the auspices of the Treasury Department and were successfully published nationwide. In 1943, two of Harold’s war posters were featured in the Museum of Modern Art’s Artists for Victory exhibit. In 1945, in response to the revelation of the atrocities of the Holocaust, Harold did many blackened drawings of prisoners and the camps.

    In 1946, Harold left Woodstock and returned to New York City. He continued easel painting, sculpting, and photography. He also began teaching art from his studio on West 21st Street. In 1950, Lehman met Leona Koutras, who had come to his studio for art lessons. Two years later they married and had two children. In the 1970s Harold worked as designer and scenic artist for CBS and NBC television.

    Physical Details

    English Spanish
    Object Type
    Drawing (lcsh)
    Charcoal drawing.
    Physical Description
    Anti-fascist charcoal drawing on white cardstock. The image depicts a bloody soldier lying face down in hilly terrain with his rifle and helmet strewn on the ground before him. His right arm is extended with his outstretched fingers clutching the ground. In the center background, looming above the soldier, are three caricatured heads; the left has a narrow mustache narrow eyes and a bald head, the center has a garrison cap and a large nose with dark skin and a mustache, and, and the right has a broad jaw, thick lips and a cap with an eagle on the front. On the left, in dark shading, a woman sits in right profile holding a baby in her lap. Spanish text floats over the soldier and continues off into the distance and there is a line of planes across the sky. Across the full width of the top is a piece of white tape, approximately 1” wide. The backside has rectangular adhesive residue and staining on the top.
    overall: Height: 11.000 inches (27.94 cm) | Width: 13.500 inches (34.29 cm)
    overall : cardstock, charcoal, pencil

    Rights & Restrictions

    Conditions on Access
    No restrictions on access
    Conditions on Use
    Restrictions on use

    Keywords & Subjects

    Geographic Name

    Administrative Notes

    The drawing was donated to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 2015 by Lisa Lehman Trager, the daughter of Harold Lehman.
    Record last modified:
    2023-02-23 16:50:54
    This page:

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