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Anti-Nazi lithograph featuring Hitler surrounded by children’s faces

Object | Accession Number: 2015.609.9

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    Anti-Nazi lithograph featuring Hitler surrounded by children’s faces


    Brief Narrative
    Black and white offset lithograph on paper by Harold Lehman showing Adolf Hitler ringed by several children’s ghostly faces. The image is artist Harold Lehman’s reaction to the bombing of the town of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War. In April 1937, at the request of Francisco Franco, German planes bombed Guernica, killing 1,600 civilians, destroying 70% of the town and shocking the American public. The piece was exhibited in the Alma Reed Gallery. Alma Reed was formerly an American reporter who worked in Mexico. In 1928 she left journalism and opened an art gallery in New York. An award winning painter, muralist and sculptor, Harold Lehman was known for making political statements with his artwork. He was born and raised in New York City, but moved to Los Angeles as a teenager, attending the Otis Art Institute. While in L.A. he worked with Phil Guston, Jackson Pollock, D.A. Siqueiros, and Manuel Tolegain. In 1941, Harold moved back to New York and continued his career, working with the Public Works of Art Project (PWAP) and the Federal Art Project, both New Deal programs to employ artists. He also worked with the Treasury department and Abbott Laboratories to create War Bond advertisements, pro-American propaganda, and anti-fascist pieces.
    creation:  1937 June
    creation: New York (N.Y.)
    Credit Line
    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of Lisa Lehman Trager
    front, within image, top left, printed, black ink : 4-21 / 35
    bottom right, printed, watermark : GCM
    front, below image, handwritten, pencil : GUERNICA’ H Lehman 1937
    Artist: Harold Lehman
    Subject: Adolf Hitler
    Harold Lehman (1913-2006) was born in New York City, New York to Abraham and Rachel Lehman, immigrants from Europe who arrived in New York at the turn of the twentieth century. Early on, Harold’s father struggled to find consistent employment, working as a mailman and a vaudeville dancer. Later he found steady work as an insurance agent and then left the family and moved to California. His mother was a seamstress. Harold had a twin brother and was one of five children. Harold was part Jewish, and went through synagogue as a boy. The family lived in the West side of Brooklyn and then in the Bronx. In February 1930, Harold and his older brother Charlie moved to California to live with their father.

    In California, Harold enrolled at the Manual Arts High School in Los Angeles. There he formed lifelong friendships with future notable artists such as Phil Guston, Jackson Pollock, and Manuel Tolegain. Early in his art career, Harold worked primarily as a sculptor. He used plaster and clay as well as carving directly in stone. In 1931, after graduating from Manual Arts, Lehman won a citywide competition for a yearlong scholarship to the Otis Art Institute. In 1932, after leaving Otis, Harold focused on painting and began working with painter D.A. Siqueiros, joining his “Bloc of Painters,” a group of artists with socialist leanings. In 1933, Harold won second place in the Los Angeles Museum’s annual competition of painters and sculptors. In 1933 and 1934, Harold did work for the Public Works of Art Project (PWAP) a New Deal program to employ artists.

    In 1935, Harold felt he had gone as far as he could in Los Angeles, and returned to New York City. There he painted murals for the Federal Art Project, another New Deal program created to employ artists, and sold paintings at exhibits and shows. During this time he continued working with Siqueiros and began experimenting with different types of paints, lacquers and application methods. In 1936 and 1937, Harold created paintings opposing the Fascists and the German and Italian intervention in the Spanish Civil War. In 1939, Harold painted a mural for the World’s Fair in New York. While working with Siqueiros, Harold also designed floats for several New York City parades promoting the Allied war effort and denouncing fascism. In the fall of 1941, Harold fell while painting a mural and broke both his arms. While recuperating, Harold was called up for service by the draft board. With the combination of his broken arms, his disinclination towards violence, his inability to take orders and his work as an artist for federal programs, he was able to get a deferral.

    In 1942, Harold moved from New York City to Woodstock, NY where he created several war paintings for the Section of Fine Arts and the Treasury Department. Around this time, Harold was approached by Arnold Blanch and Reeves Lewenthal, from the Associated American Artist Gallery. Through a partnership with Associated American Artists and the United States Treasury Department, Abbott Laboratories created a program to create advertisements and illustrations for its medical journal What’s New and for the United States Government’s War Department through their Schools-At-War program. They provided Harold with poster themes and he was free to create within that setting. The series of posters was created through the auspices of the Treasury Department and were successfully published nationwide. In 1943, two of Harold’s war posters were featured in the Museum of Modern Art’s Artists for Victory exhibit. In 1945, in response to the revelation of the atrocities of the Holocaust, Harold did many blackened drawings of prisoners and the camps.

    In 1946, Harold left Woodstock and returned to New York City. He continued easel painting, sculpting, and photography. He also began teaching art from his studio on West 21st Street. In 1950, Lehman met Leona Koutras, who had come to his studio for art lessons. Two years later they married and had two children. In the 1970s Harold worked as designer and scenic artist for CBS and NBC television.

    Physical Details

    Object Type
    Lithographs (aat)
    Physical Description
    Black and white offset lithographic print on medium weight, off white paper showing Adolf Hitler ringed by several children’s ghostly faces. Hitler is depicted from the chest up in three quarters right profile. His face is old and weary with loose skin and an overly large nose. Depicted on Hitler’s chest is a black landscape filled with explosions and planes flying overhead. Around him, floating in the cloudy black background, are the pale white faces of six children. Their eyes are closed and their mouths loosely hang open, suggesting they are dead. The top left face has a date written under it. The paper has a watermark on the bottom right and is attached to a piece of white mat board with vertical strips of linen tape at each corner. The mat board has two long, horizontal strips of masking tape placed on top of each other on the top edge. A sheet of clear plastic is taped to the mat board just below, and covers the image. The title, date and author’s signature are below the image and repeated on the bottom of the mat board.
    overall: Height: 18.000 inches (45.72 cm) | Width: 14.000 inches (35.56 cm)
    pictorial area: Height: 12.500 inches (31.75 cm) | Width: 10.875 inches (27.623 cm)
    overall : mat board, paper, plastic, ink, tape, adhesive, pencil
    front, on mat board, handwritten, pencil : HAROLD LEHMAN “guernica” 1937 litho ed 10

    Rights & Restrictions

    Conditions on Access
    No restrictions on access
    Conditions on Use
    Restrictions on use

    Keywords & Subjects

    Administrative Notes

    The lithograph was donated to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 2015 by Lisa Lehman Trager, the daughter of Harold Lehman.
    Record last modified:
    2023-02-23 16:50:56
    This page:

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