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Factory-printed Star of David badge printed with Jude, belonging to a German Jewish prisoner

Object | Accession Number: 2018.427.4

Yellow cloth Star of David badge worn by Hans Benjamin Marx while living under the Nazi dictatorship in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, between September 1, 1941 and February 14, 1945. All Jews in the Reich were required to wear Judenstern on their outer clothing at all times to identify themselves as Jewish. Hans spent most of the war in Frankfurt with his older sister, Claire, and their mother, Elise. Elise was a Protestant, but converted to Judaism before getting married to Hans’s father, Ernest. In November 1938, following the Kristallnacht pogrom, Ernest was arrested and transported to Buchenwald concentration camp. In December, Ernest was released and promised to leave the country within two weeks. He spent the rest of the war in Egypt. Because Hans was a child from a mixed marriage and classified as Geltungsjude, Jewish by law, he was subject to anti-Jewish restrictions beginning in 1935. After eight years of elementary school, 14-year-old Hans became a carpentry apprentice. In January 1945, Hans turned 18 and could no longer be protected by his mother’s Aryan status. On February 14, 1945, he was deported to Theresienstadt ghetto-labor camp in German-occupied Czechoslovakia. As a forced laborer, Hans helped to build an alleged air raid shelter, and tried to sabotage it. On May 8, 1945, the Red Army liberated the camp. In June, Hans returned to Frankfurt and reunited with his mother and sister. They immigrated to the United States on June 6, 1946, and reunited there with his father in 1947.

Date
use:  after 1941 September 01-before 1945 February 14
Geography
use: Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
Language
German
Classification
Identifying Artifacts
Category
Badges
Genre/Form
Magen David badges.
Credit Line
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of Judith Marx
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Record last modified: 2019-07-19 12:51:44
This page: https://collections.ushmm.org/search/catalog/irn633653