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Germany, occupation currency, 50 crowns, issued in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia acquired by a US soldier

Object | Accession Number: 2013.442.34

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    Germany, occupation currency, 50 crowns, issued in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia acquired by a US soldier

    Overview

    Brief Narrative
    Fifty crown note, issued in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia of German occupied Czechoslovakia acquired by Captain James Edward Kirkebo, who served in the US Army from 1940-1945, and fought in Europe with the Thunderbolt Division from December 1944-May 1945. Kirkebo, 19, enlisted in the US Army in 1940 and, in August 1942, 2nd Lt. Kirkebo became commanding officer, C Company, 21st Armored Infantry Battalion, 11th Armored Division. In December 1944, Kirkebo's unit landed in Normandy, defended Bastogne during the Battle of the Bulge, and spearheaded the Allied advance into Germany. Kirkebo received a battlefield promotion to captain on February 1, 1945. On May 5 and 6, soldiers from the 11th Armored liberated Gusen and Mauthausen concentration camps. At Mauthausen, the unit was tasked with caring for 19,000 starving inmates. On May 7, 1945, Germany surrendered. Kirkebo was awarded a Silver Star and 3 Bronze Stars for his leadership and heroism in action.
    Date
    issue:  1940 September 12-1945
    Geography
    issue: Bohemia and Moravia (Protectorate, 1939-1945)
    Credit Line
    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of the Estate of James Edward Kirkebo
    Markings
    face, four corners, white on brown background : 50
    face, center, brown ink : Protektorat Bőhmen und Mähren. / Fünfzig Kronen. / PROTEKTORAT ČECHY A MORAVA. / PADESAT KORUN. / Prag. den 12 September 1940 / V PRAZE DNE 12 ZÁRI 1940 [Protectorate Bohemia and Moravia. / Fifty crowns. / PROTECTORATE OF BOHEMIA AND MORAVIA. / FIFTY CROWNS. / In Prague on 12 September 1940 / IN PRAGUE ON 12 SEPTEMBER 1940]
    face, bottom, brown ink : Nachmachung wird beftraft PADĔLÁNÍ SE TRESTA [Imitations will be punished PENALTY FOR COUNTERFEITING]
    face, center, underprint : 50
    face, bottom center, serial number, red ink : 589818 A19
    face, bottom left in seal, white text on red : 50 / FUNFZIGKRONEN / PADESATKORUN [FIFTY CROWNS]
    reverse, four corners, green ink : 50
    reverse, center, green ink : Protektorat / Bőhmen und Mähren / Fünfzig Kronen / PROTEKTORAT ČECHY A MORAVA / PADESAT KORUN
    reverse, bottom, green ink : BANKNOTEN DRUCKEREI DER NATIONALBANK FÜR BÖHMEN UND MÄHREN IN PRAG / TISEARNA BANKOVEK NARONDI BANKY PRO ČECHY A MORAVA PRAZE [BANKNOTE PRINTING THE NATIONAL BANK FOR BOHEMIA AND MORAVIA IN PRAGUE]
    reverse, right, top and bottom, green ink : 50
    Contributor
    Subject: James E. Kirkebo
    Issuer: National Bank of Prague
    Biography
    James (Jim) Edward Kirkebo was born on April 22, 1921, in Tacoma, Washington. He was the second of three children born to Gerhard and Irene Kirkebo. His parents were both born in Norway and immigrated to the United States in the early 1900s. Gerhard was a building contractor. In spring 1939, James graduated from high school and took a job as a shipping clerk.

    On September 14, 1940, he enlisted in the US Army. Following the December 7, 1941, attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States entered World War II. James was deployed for four and a half months with the Asia Pacific Technical Operations (APTO) unit, through December 1941. James rose to the rank of Sergeant, with a specialty in reconnaissance. On December 7, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor,a, and a few days later the US entered World War II. On May 11, 1942, James was selected to attend the Army’s newly formed Officer Candidate Course at Fort Benning in Georgia. In early August, Staff Sergeant Kirkebo, 2nd Training Regiment, 16th Co., graduated from the Officer’s Candidate Course and was reenlisted as a Second Lieutenant with a specialty in automotive maintenance and repair. In mid-August, the 11th Armored Division, the Thunderbolt Division, was activated, as part of the Third Army. James was made commanding officer of C Company, 21st Armored Infantry Battalion. The unit was deployed in September to Great Britain. In early December, his unit landed in Normandy, France, and moved north into Belgium. They entered combat on December 30, defending the road to Bastogne during the Battle of the Bulge. In January 1945, the Division spearheaded the Allied advance into Germany. On February 1, James received a field promotion to Captain. In February and March, the 11th Armored overran several cities, then crossed the Rhine River. In April, the unit turned south towards the Danube River and Austria. James was wounded by shrapnel on April 25, but continued fighting. On May 5 and 6, the Division liberated Gusen and Mauthausen concentration camps, two of the largest camps in Austria. The Medical Inspector’s report on Mauthausen stated that "the situation in the camp on the arrival of the US Forces was one of indescribable filth and human degradation." There were over 19,000 prisoners, most little more than skeletons, and over half in need of immediate medical care. They had to keep the inmates from leaving the camp, until they were able to eat again. After starving for so long, they became sick from eating the soldier's rations or regular food. The 11th Armored Division turned to the task of providing medical services, caring for the inmates, and improving conditions in the camp.

    On May 7, 1945, Germany surrendered. The Division was placed on occupational duty until August 31, when it was deactivated. On September 1, James was reassigned to the 9th Armored Division, 52nd Armored Infantry Battalion, C Company. The 9th armored continued occupational duties in Germany until early fall. James returned to the US on October 13, 1945, the same day the 9th Armored Division was deactivated. He was relieved from active duty and honorably discharged. James had participated in the Rhineland, Ardennes, and Central Europe Campaigns and received many medals for his service, including a Silver Star, for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in leadership while in action against the enemy, Bronze Stars for heroic conduct, Purple Heart, American Defense Service, and campaign medals. James returned to Tacoma and went into business with his father as a building contractor. In the late 1940s, James married Lorna (1920-1998), and the couple had two children. James joined the 6th Army Reserves Company, Instructor Group, transitioning to retired in 1962. James, age 70, died on June 4, 1991, in Tacoma, Washington.

    Physical Details

    Language
    Czech German
    Classification
    Exchange Media
    Category
    Money
    Physical Description
    Rectangular paper currency with a face design in dark brown ink on a light brown latticework background with a denomination 50 underprint. There is a wide, offwhite left margin with a rampant Bohemian lion on a shield and a red seal with the denomination 50. To the right is a rectangle with the denomination 50 near the corners. Superimposed in the center is Czech and German text including the denomination, and the serial number in red. On the right is a medallion with the female bust wearing a garland. The reverse has an inverse design in green ink. The rectangle has a dark green rippled border and an inner floral border. The inside corners have the denomination 50, with a rampant, crowned Bohemian lion and Czech and German text in the center. The wide, light green right margin has the denomination 50 at the top and bottom. It is creased, discolored, and torn.
    Dimensions
    overall: Height: 3.000 inches (7.62 cm) | Width: 7.000 inches (17.78 cm)
    Materials
    overall : paper, ink

    Rights & Restrictions

    Conditions on Access
    No restrictions on access
    Conditions on Use
    No restrictions on use

    Keywords & Subjects

    Administrative Notes

    Provenance
    The currency was donated to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 2013 by Jamie Kirkebo, on behalf of the Estate of his father, James Edward Kirkebo.
    Funding Note
    The cataloging of this artifact has been supported by a grant from the Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany.
    Record last modified:
    2023-08-28 10:31:48
    This page:
    https:​/​/collections.ushmm.org​/search​/catalog​/irn84724

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