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Łódź ghetto scrip, 2 mark note, acquired by a Polish Jewish survivor

Object | Accession Number: 1989.207.9

Łódź (Litzmannstadt) ghetto scrip, 2 mark note, acquired by Benjamin Miedzyrzecki, who moved to Łódź from Warsaw, both liberated in early 1945, in the final months of the war, circa February-May 1945. The scrip was was issued in the German-controlled ghetto from May 15, 1940 until the ghetto was liquidated in spring 1944. When the Germans transferred Jews to the ghetto, all currency was confiscated in exchange for Quittungen [receipts.] The Jewish Council also issued it to forced laborers and certain classes of people. It could be spent only inside the ghetto. When Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939, Benjamin lived in Warsaw with his parents, Israel and Rivka, and siblings Stela, Mordecai, and . He fled to eastern Poland, then returned in December and joined the Jewish resistance. After the Warsaw ghetto was established in October 1940, Benjamin was a forced laborer, working daily outside the ghetto cleaning destroyed buildings. He smuggled people in and out of the ghetto for the resistance. In July 1942, the Germans began mass deportations of Jews to Treblinka killing center. Benjamin’s father Israel was arrested and bribed a policeman to release him. His sister Stela and her husband Yitzhak Blachowicz were sent to Treblinka. In fall 1942, Benjamin meet Feigele (Vladka) Peltel, a courier for the underground, when he smuggled her out of the ghetto. Benjamin escaped and went into hiding on the Aryan side of Warsaw with Feigele. He eventually persuaded his family to join him. In summer 1943, he gave his brother false papers to leave Poland, but Mordecai was shot and killed. The ghetto was liquidated that summer after the failed Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. In August 1944, Soviet troops reached the Vistula River near Warsaw and the Polish Home Army rebelled against the German occupation. Israel, Rivka, and Genia were separated from Benjamin. The Uprising was crushed and the city destroyed by the Germans in October 1944. Benjamin received a message from Israel and found them after Warsaw was liberated on January 16, 1945. The family returned to Warsaw where Israel insisted that Benjamin marry Feigele. The family left for Łódź and were there when the war ended in early May 1945. They then left for Munich, Germany. In May 1946, Benjamin and Feigele sailed for America. Genia emigrated to Israel in 1946 and Israel and Rivka joined her in 1947.

issue:  1940 May 15
found:  approximately 1945 February
issue: Litzmannstadt-Getto (Łódź, Poland); Łódź (Poland)
Exchange Media
Object Type
Scrip (aat)
Credit Line
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of Benjamin Meed
Record last modified: 2022-07-28 18:21:09
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