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Rusted heel plate with screw recovered from Chelmno killing center

Object | Accession Number: 1989.308.6

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    Rusted heel plate with screw recovered from Chelmno killing center

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    Brief Narrative
    Metal heel plate, likely recovered from a temporary pit furnace at Chelmno killing center in German-occupied Poland, during an archaeological excavation in 1986 and 1987. Killing operations at Chelmno commenced on December 8, 1941. Prisoners were taken to a camp at a manor house (Schlosslager) in the village to undress and relinquish their valuables. They were then loaded into a gas van where they were killed. The van was then driven 2.5 miles northwest of the village to a camp in the Rzuchowski forest (Waldlager), where the bodies were dumped into mass graves. The large number of corpses created a threat of disease and discovery by Allied forces, so the bodies were exhumed and burned in seven primitive pit furnaces. In the fall of 1942, the furnaces were replaced with two open-air crematoria consisting of concrete foundations topped by a grate of train rails. In March 1943, transports to Chelmno stopped, and the manor house and open-air crematoria in the forest were demolished. Deportations to Chelmno resumed from June to July 1944, to facilitate the liquidation of the Łódź ghetto. In this second phase, the entire killing process was carried out in the forest camp (Waldlager), necessitating the construction of new buildings. The Germans abandoned the camp on January 17, 1945, having killed over 172,000 people. The excavations of 1986-87, and later work have identified additional furnaces, crematoria, and mass graves at the site.
    use:  before 1942 September
    recovered:  1986-1987
    recovery: Chelmno (Concentration camp); Chełmno (Koło, Poland)
    Credit Line
    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of Muzeum Okręgowe w Koninie

    Physical Details

    Tools and Equipment
    Object Type
    Heelplates (aat)
    Shoe industry.
    Physical Description
    Large, flat, crescent-shaped corroded metal heel plate, with a partial screw near one corner. The outside edge of the plate is an even curve, while the inside edge has two scalloped curves with the peak in the center. There are five small holes in the surface, two of which have corroded over. In the left corner of the plate, a metal screw pierces from the bottom. The end of the shank is broken off and the head and base of the shank are heavily corroded. The entire surface of the plate is covered in a heavy, orange-brown corrosion, obscuring the original finish.
    overall: Height: 0.500 inches (1.27 cm) | Width: 3.000 inches (7.62 cm) | Depth: 1.125 inches (2.858 cm)
    overall : metal

    Rights & Restrictions

    Conditions on Access
    No restrictions on access
    Conditions on Use
    No restrictions on use

    Keywords & Subjects

    Administrative Notes

    The heel plate was donated to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 1989 by the Muzeum Okręgowe w Koninie.
    Record last modified:
    2023-09-15 10:20:38
    This page:

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