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Portrait photograph by Judy Glickman of founding member of Danish resistance

Object | Accession Number: 2010.206.1

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    Portrait photograph by Judy Glickman of founding member of Danish resistance

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    Brief Narrative
    Black and white photographic print taken by Judy Glickman in 1993 of Frode Jakobsen, a Danish resistance leader. Frode founded the largest underground rescue group, the Ringen [The Ring], and co-founded the Danish Freedom Council to coordinate the efforts of different resistance groups. Frode remained active in the resistance until Denmark was liberated in May 1945. Germany occupied Denmark on April 9, 1940, but allowed the Danish government to retain control of domestic affairs. Jews were not molested and the German presence was limited. After the Germans invaded the Soviet Union in 1941 and began to face military setbacks, a Danish resistance movement developed. On August 29, 1943, the Germans declared martial law and began to address the Jewish problem. A mass deportation was scheduled for October 1. The plan was leaked and Danish citizens organized a large scale rescue effort to hide the Jews and, by the eve of the deportation, had ferried 7000 people, nearly all the Jews in Denmark, to neutral Sweden.
    Artwork Title
    Frode Jakobsen
    creation:  1993
    creation: Denmark
    Credit Line
    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of Judith Ellis Glickman
    Subject: Frode Jakobsen
    Photographer: Judy E. Glickman
    Subject: Judy E. Glickman
    Frode Jakobsen was born on December 21, 1906, in Oster Jolby, Denmark, to Ole Jakobsen, a school teacher, born in 1854, and Ane Mette Lorensten, born in 1874. His family was poor and he attended a Grundtvigian school, a privately run folk school movement which focuses on a diverse, humanistic education and active participation in society. He worked as a farm hand for 6 years before attending the Viborg Cathedral School, from which he graduated in 1929. During the 1930s, he traveled to Germany as an illegal courier in an effort to aid Germans who wished to leave following the establishment of Nazi government in 1933. He married Ruth Goldstein, an X-ray assistant, in Copenhagen on January 23, 1937. In 1939, he graduated from the University of Copenhagen with a Masters degree in German.

    Germany invaded Denmark on April 9, 1940. In 1941, Frode formed the resistance group, Ringen [the Ring]. The group printed uncensored newspapers and traveled throughout Denmark to encourage support against the German occupation. In September 1943, Frode co-founded the Danish Freedom Council in an attempt to coordinate the efforts of the various resistance groups. It was made up of seven Danish representatives and a member of the Special Operations Executive, an organization which supported the resistance movement throughout Europe. By 1944, the Council operated an extensive publishing operation. The movement grew to over 20,000 members and acts of sabotage against the Germans increased.

    In the fall of 1944, Frode established a cooperative effort between politicians and resistance leaders to formulate a plan for a postwar government. On May 7, Germany unconditionally surrendered to the Allied Forces and withdrew from Denmark. Frode became a minister without portfolio in the new government. He joined the Danish Social Democratic party and was elected to Parliament in October 1945, serving until 1973. He served in the Home Guard from 1948-1971, as President of the European Movement from 1951-1954, and as chairman of the Danish delegation to the United Nations from 1962-1966.

    His first wife, Ruth, died in 1974 and Frode married Agnes Maria Male on August 6, 1977, in Solrod, Denmark. In 1995, the Frode Jakobsen prize for exceptional courage in politics, in conjunction with the defunct political organization, the June Movement, was established. Frode authored several books and died on June 15, 1997, in Denmark, at the age of 90.
    Judy Ellis Glickman is a photographer and the daughter of Dr. Irving Bennett and Louise Ellis. Her father was a noted CAlifornia pictorialist photographer in the 1930s and 1940s. She pursued photography at a young age and obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1959 from the University of California at Los Angeles. She studied photography at UCLA from 1978-1985, the Maine Photographic Workshop from 1978-87, and the Portland School of Art from 1984-1985. Her grandparents emigrated to the United States at the turn of the 20th century, and her mother and grandmother in 1914. Though not a child of a Holocaust survivor, it was while visiting concentration camps in Poland in 1988 that she began to wonder how many unknown family members perished. During this trip, the work became more personal, real, and meaningful to her. She returns to Europe every year to visit and photograph Holocaust sites. She was asked by the Thanks to Scandinavia Foundation to create a photographic narrative documenting the Danish rescue effort. She has exhibited extensively and won numerous awards. Both her sons are rabbis. She is on the board of the Portland Museum of Art in Maine and is a fellow of the Royal Photographic Society in England.

    Physical Details

    Physical Description
    Black and white gelatin silver photographic print, portrait orientation, medium close up, shot with direct light, depicting an older, white male with thinning, wavy white hair brushed back from a receding hairline. The hair on the sides is bushy and cut above the ear and he has thick, wiry eyebrows. His serious gaze is fixed on the viewer. He has deep lines around his mouth and nose, a trimmed goatee, and wears a dark crew neck sweater. A leather strap hangs down over his shoulders and chest. The print is attached to a top hinged mat board with photo corners on the backboard. On the front of the window mat is a number, and on the reverse of the backboard are letters, numbers, and a circular red sticker. Pencil stop lines are on the reverse of the window mat.
    overall: Height: 20.000 inches (50.8 cm) | Width: 16.000 inches (40.64 cm)
    pictorial area: Height: 13.250 inches (33.655 cm) | Width: 9.120 inches (23.165 cm)
    overall : mat board, gelatin silver print, pressure-sensitive tape, plastic, adhesive, graphite, paper
    backboard, reverse, upper right, pencil : 112
    backboard, reverse, center, pencil : JEG-27 / PF 41255
    window mat, lower right, pencil : 6

    Rights & Restrictions

    Conditions on Access
    No restrictions on access
    Conditions on Use
    Restrictions on use. Donor retains copyright for this collection.

    Keywords & Subjects

    Administrative Notes

    The photograph was donated to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 2010 by Judith Ellis Glickman.
    Funding Note
    The cataloging of this artifact has been supported by a grant from the Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany.
    Record last modified:
    2022-07-28 18:26:25
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