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Identification tag that exempted a Jewish child from deportation

Object | Accession Number: 2006.446.2

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    Identification tag that exempted a Jewish child from deportation

    Overview

    Brief Narrative
    Identification tag that protected two and half year old Ilona Winograd from deportation in the Łódź ghetto. In 1941, Ilona and her parents, Bella and Marek, were imprisoned in the ghetto after the 1939 German occupation of Poland. From September 5-12, 1942, the Germans conducted a mass deportation, targeting hospital patients, the elderly, and children; over 12,000 people were deported to Chelmno extermination camp. Ilona was not included in the round-up because she was the child of an essential Jewish Council employee; her father was in charge of ghetto housing. During the Aktion, each exempted child was issued a round, wooden tag with their name and required to wear it around their neck. The children were hidden in the hospital on Lagiewnicka Street until the Aktion ended. When the ghetto was liquidated in October 1944, Ilona and her mother were sent to Ravensbrück concentration camp and her father was sent to Oranienburg. They were reunited when the war ended in May 1945. They walked back to Łódź and searched unsuccessfully for relatives. They left for Sweden in 1946 because of postwar antisemitism.
    Date
    use:  1942 September 05-1942 September 12
    Geography
    use: Litzmannstadt-Getto (Łódź, Poland); Łódź (Poland)
    Credit Line
    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of Ilona W. Barkal
    Contributor
    Subject: Ilona Barkal
    Biography
    Ilona Winograd was born in the Łódź Ghetto on German occupied Poland on January 15, 1940, to Bajla (Bella) Kozak and Marcus Marek Winograd. Bajla was born on December 12, 1909, and was a Strasbourg educated bacteriologist. Marcus, born on May 18, 1903, was a textile engineer. Thier families lived next door to each other. Bella's family had a newspaper distribution business and Marek's family ran a clothing store. The couple married on February 2, 1938. Germany invaded and occupied Poland in early September 1939. In February, the families were forced into a Jewish ghetto. Bella and Marek lived with their extended family, including Ilona’s paternal grandparents, Luba and Nuchem, maternal grandparents, Ita and Moshe, and three maternal uncles, Szmul, (1910-1944), Fabian, (1907-1943), and Izio, d. 1941. Marcus worked for the Jewish Council and was in charge of housing. Bajla worked as a bacteriologist in the laboratory at 3 Zgierska Street. From September 5-12, 1942, 12,000 Jews were deported to Chelmno extermination camp during the Gehsperre Aktion. The ghetto hospital was closed, and the patients were the first to be deported, followed by the elderly, the infirm, and children. Ilona was two and a half years old, but was exempted from deportation because she was the child of a Jewish Council essential employee. During the Aktion, each exempted child was issued a round, wooden tag with their name and required to wear it around their neck. The group of 226 children were hidden in the hospital on Lagiewnicka Street, until the Aktion ended. In August 1944, as the ghetto was being emptied of all residents through mass deportations, the Winograd family was permitted to stay until October. On October 21, 1944, a group of 600 Jews, including Ilona and her parents, known as Biebow's Jews, after the Nazi administrator of the ghetto, Hans Biebow, were taken to Konigs Wusterhausen concentration camp, near Berlin. Ilona and Bella were transported to Ravensbrück concentration camp and Marcus was sent to Oranienburg concentration camp. Ilona's mother, with her skills as a scientist, would drug Ilona to keep her still and quiet during times of danger in the camp. On April 27, 1945, the Soviet Army liberated the area and Ilona, Bella, and Marcus were reunited. The family walked back to Łódź and searched unsuccessfully for any remaining family members. Bella found work as a laboratory technician but, in 1946, the family left for Sweden because of the intense antisemitism in Poland. Ilona received a degree in dentistry and emigrated to Israel in 1970.

    Physical Details

    Language
    German
    Classification
    Identifying Artifacts
    Category
    Labels
    Object Type
    Name tags (lcsh)
    Physical Description
    Circular, wooden identification tag, with two holes crudely pierced near the center. There is handwritten German text and dates on the front, with the name at the bottom covered in clear lacquer. The reverse has handwritten German text in faded black ink and scribble marks.
    Dimensions
    overall: | Depth: 0.250 inches (0.635 cm) | Diameter: 2.000 inches (5.08 cm)
    Materials
    overall : wood, ink, lacquer
    Inscription
    front, cursive, blue and black ink : 6/IX-14IX / 1942 / s.10 / Winograd Ilona / 198 / 226
    reverse, cursive, blue ink : Aussiedlung / 6 [?] 42 / Litzmannstadt / [?] [Evacuation]

    Rights & Restrictions

    Conditions on Access
    No restrictions on access
    Conditions on Use
    No restrictions on use

    Keywords & Subjects

    Administrative Notes

    Provenance
    The identification tag was donated to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum by Ilona Winograd Barkal in 2006.
    Record last modified:
    2022-10-28 11:41:12
    This page:
    https:​/​/collections.ushmm.org​/search​/catalog​/irn518659

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