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Slate pencil covered with blue patterned paper used by a student in Nazi Germany

Object | Accession Number: 1990.45.6

Slate pencil used by a student in Germany before and during the Holocaust. Slate pencils were used by students to write on slate blackboards, or slates, which were made from thin sheets of stone. The slate pencils were made from a softer stone. After Adolf Hitler was appointed chancellor of Germany in 1933, the Nazi authorities passed new laws that dictated who could teach and be educated in the German school system. Quotas restricting the number of Jewish students who could attend public schools were established. Under the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service Act, Jewish teachers or ones considered “politically unreliable” were purged from schools, and Nazi Party membership was compulsory for all remaining teachers. At the entrance to school, students had to lift their arms and say, “Heil Hitler!” School curriculum was changed to emphasize sports, history, and racial science with the purpose of indoctrinating students with Nazi ideology. Subjects such as religion became less important, and were eventually removed from the curriculum altogether. Any textbooks used to educate students had to be approved by the party. Censors removed books that did not meet these standards from the classroom, and introduced new textbooks that taught students militarism, racism, antisemitism, obedience to state authority, and love for Hitler. Instruction aimed to produce race-conscious, obedient Germans who would be willing to die for the Führer and Fatherland. Nordic and other “Aryan” races were glorified, while Jews and other peoples were deemed inferior.

use:  before 1945
use: Germany
Object Type
Slate pencil (aat)
Writing materials.
Credit Line
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of Schulmuseum Berlin.
Record last modified: 2022-11-03 11:10:11
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