Advanced Search

Learn About The Holocaust

Special Collections

My Saved Research




Skip to main content

Mizrach, a sign designating the direction of Jerusalem, with a personal inscription created by a sofer

Object | Accession Number: 1992.8.36

Search this record's additional resources, such as finding aids, documents, or transcripts.

No results match this search term.
Check spelling and try again.

results are loading

0 results found for “keyward

    Mizrach, a sign designating the direction of Jerusalem, with a personal inscription created by a sofer

    Please select from the following options:


    Brief Narrative
    Mizrach poster created by Isaac Ossowski in honor of his wife, Frida's, birthday. A mizrach [mizrachl means east] is a decorative item placed in a traditional Jewish home to indicate the east, the direction of Jerusalem and the direction to face for prayers. This work was originally framed and hung on the east wall of their home. Rabbi Ossowski was a prominent member of the Jewish community in Berlin. He was head shochet [ritual slaughterer], mohel [practioner of ritual circumcision], sofer [scribe], and hazan [cantor or musical prayer leader] at the Alte Shul [Old Synagogue]. After Hitler was appointed Chancellor in 1933, increasingly severe sanctions were enacted against Jews. The Ossowski family was repeatedly questioned by the SS (Schutzstaffel; Protection Squadrons) who gathered intelligence on opponents of the Nazi state and policed racial purity. In 1934, Isaac sent his youngest son, 14 year old Sol, to Lithuania to study at a yeshiva. In 1936, his sons, Joseph and Leo, left for the United States. In 1938, Isaac and his wife, Frida, and their daughter, Nettie, escaped Nazi Germany and joined Joseph in the US. Sol joined them there in 1939.
    Artwork Title
    Mizrach for my Wife
    creation:  1928-1929
    emigration:  1938
    creation: Berlin (Germany)
    Credit Line
    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of Sol Oster
    right column, handwritten, ink, Hebrew text: Nisan/Iyar/ Sivan/Tammuz/Av/Elul [Aries/Taurus/Gemini/Cancer/Leo/Virgo]
    left column, handwritten, ink, Hebrew text : Tishrei/Marheshvan/Kislev/Tevet/Shevat/Adar [Libra/Scorpius/Sagittarius/Capricorn/Aquarius/Pisces]
    top, banner, handwritten, ink : Hebrew text from Psalm 113:3 [From the rising of the sun unto the going down thereof of the LORD’S name is to be praised]
    circle, center, handwritten, ink, Hebrew text: מזרח [East]
    candlestick, upper section of central stem, handwritten, ink : Hebrew text from Numbers 4:9 [...the candlestick of the light, and its lamps...]
    candlestick, lower section of central stem, handwritten, ink : Hebrew text from Exodus 29:31 and Exodus 37:17 [its base, and its shaft; its cups,...and its flowers... its base, and its shaft; its cups,...and its flowers...]
    candlestick, outer arms, handwritten, ink : Hebrew text from Numbers 8:2-3 [When thou lightest the lamps]
    Artist: Isaac Ossowski
    Subject: Isaac Ossowski
    Subject: Sol Oster
    Isaac Ossowski was born in 1877 in Lubraniez, near Warsaw, Poland, to an extremely devout family and Hasidim, with a long tradition of religious study and service, as hazan [cantors], shochet [ritual slaughterer], mohels [perform ritual circumcision], and sofers [scribes.] His father, Menahem, was a shochet and Isaac attended Yeshiva in Russia. He resettled in Germany, first in Frankfurt am Main, then in Berlin. He married Frieda Schwartzbardt, born in 1888. They had three sons, Joseph, (1915-2011), Leo (b. 4/1/1913), and Sol (1919-2011), and one daughter, Nettie. Rabbi Ossowski became head shochet, overseeing the ritual slaughter of animals in Berlin. He also served as hazan, mohel, and sofer for the Alte Shule [Old Synagogue]. After Hitler was appointed Chancellor in 1933, the persecution of Jews became official government policy. Rabbi Ossowski and members of his family were interrogated several times by the SS (Schutzstaffel; Protection Squadrons) who gathered intelligence on opponents of the Nazi state and policed racial purity. In 1934, due to the threatening anti-Semitic climate of the Nazi state, he sent his young son, Sol, to Lithuania to study at a yeshiva. In 1938, Rabbi Ossowski, with his wife and daughter, escaped Nazi Germany for the United States. They joined their sons, Joseph and Leo, who had settled in the United States in 1936. Their son, Sol, joined them in the United States in 1939 after completing his rabbinical studies in England. Rabbi Ossowski, 66, died in Ohio in 1943.
    Sally (Sol) Ossowski was born on January 1, 1919, in Berlin, Germany, to Frieda Schwartzbardt, born in 1888, and Rabbi Issac Ossowski, born in 1877 in Lubraniez, Poland. Sol had two brothers, Leo, born on April 1, 1913, and Joseph, born in 1914, in Pfungstadt, and a sister, Nettie. His father was a prominent and active member of the Jewish community, serving as a shochet [ritual slaughterer], mohel [practioner of ritual circumcision], sofer [scribe], and cantor. The family attended the Alte Schul synagogue where Sol sang in the choir. He attended the Jewish Community School for Boys until he was 14 years old and was active in sports, plays, and clubs.
    By the early 1930s, and especially after Hitler's appointment as Chancellor in 1933, Sol noticed a change within society as people’s attitudes towards Jews began to change in response to the anti-Semitic policies of the Nazi government. The Ossowski family was the target of anti-Semitic behaviours and attacks, much of this due to his father's prominent position within the Jewish community. Some of Sol's friends stopped playing with him and neighbors no longer said hello. Members of the Hitler Youth attacked Sol on the subway, yelling “Jew, get out”, and attempted to open the doors of the moving train; Sol escaped, but not one person helped him. One day as they were on their way to temple, two SS (Schutzstaffel; Protection Squadrons) guards took Sol, his brothers, and father into the basement of a bar. Sol managed to escape, but was captured and returned; a neighbour talked the SS into letting them go. Another time, the SS forced their way into their home looking for contraband.

    As a result of this incident, Sol decided he wanted to leave Germany. Isaac supported this decision and made arrangements for him to attend seminary outside of Germany. Sol left in 1934 for a yeshiva in Ponevezh (Panevezys), Lithuania. He wanted to emigrate to Palestine and help establish a Jewish state. His brother, Joseph, got a visa for the United States with the help of a cousin, and emigrated in 1936. He sent Sol money for his living expenses. In December 1936, Sol received a letter from the German government requiring German citizens to register with the embassy in Kaunas and to hand in their passports. He was terrified that if he complied he would be stateless and unable to leave Lithuania. Sol believed emigration to Palestine was no longer an option. An Arab revolt in 1936 resulted in the British severely limiting immigration. He discussed his plight with Rabbi Kahaneman, the head of the Yeshiva. They decided that Sol should apply to the Tree of Life seminary in London. Sol no longer felt safe in Lithuania. Pro-Nazi groups were active in the country and anti-Semitism was growing stronger throughout the country. He decided to go into hiding in the Jasnegurke forest in January 1937. A farmer allowed him to live in his barn. Food was brought to him by the Green family whom he had lived with while in school. The mother, a cook at the Yeshiva, made food for Sol which her daughter brought to him. Once he received his acceptance letter from the seminary in June 1937, Sol came out of hiding and left for London via Denmark. He stayed for one week in Copenhagen with a local Rabbi before securing a ticket to London from the Joint Distribution Committee, a Jewish humanitarian assistance organization that aided German Jews in their flight from Nazi Europe. He entered England on a student visa in June 1937.

    Sol’s parents and sister left Germany for the United States via Belgium in 1938, having changed their name from Ossowski to Oster. Sol completed university and emigrated to the U.S. in 1939. He married Frieda Perl on December 20, 1947, and they had a son. He was the longest tenured rabbi at Temple Beth Israel-Shaare Zedek in Lima, Ohio, serving for more than 40 years. He retired in 1992, and was bestowed the honor of rabbi emeritus by his congregation. Leo died in 2008, Joseph in 2009, and his wife, Frieda, in 2011. Sol died on August 25, 2011, in Hilliard, Ohio at age 92.

    Physical Details

    Jewish Art and Symbolism
    Physical Description
    Rectangular, light brown parchment poster with Hebrew calligraphy and illustrations in black ink. The top, left, and right sides of the work have an image of 2 black columns with peaked towers and 6 white circles supporting a wide arch. The arch has scalloped edges on one side and triangles with round points line the other. The circles within the columns have Hebrew script within and the columns rest upon checkerboard blocks. Underneath the arch is an outlined circle with large Hebrew text. Between the columns is a menorah, a 7-branched candelabrum, with Hebrew text. Beneath the candelabrum and between the checkerboard blocks is an arch resting on 2 columns with a Hebrew inscription offering birthday wishes. Two black lines of differing widths create a border for the composition.
    overall: Height: 21.000 inches (53.34 cm) | Width: 13.500 inches (34.29 cm)
    overall : parchment, ink
    bottom, handwritten, ink : Hebrew text [With God’s help This [is] the work of my own hand and not for [my own] glory, [and] only at the request of my dear family did I do this, to mark the birthday [of] my wife Frida may she live [long] on the 10th day of the month of Shevat. I, Yitzhak the son of Menahem Ossowski. From the holy community Berlin in the year [5]789]

    Rights & Restrictions

    Conditions on Access
    No restrictions on access
    Conditions on Use
    No restrictions on use

    Keywords & Subjects

    Administrative Notes

    The Mizrach was donated to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 1992 by Rabbi Sol Oster, the son of Isaac Ossowski.
    Record last modified:
    2022-07-28 18:22:10
    This page:

    Download & Licensing

    In-Person Research

    Contact Us