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Italy Ministry of the Treasury, 1 lire note, acquired by a war crimes trials court reporter

Object | Accession Number: 2004.323.3

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    Italy Ministry of the Treasury, 1 lire note, acquired by a war crimes trials court reporter

    Overview

    Brief Narrative
    Italian 1 lire bank note acquired by Dixie Foster when she worked as a civilian court reporter during the US War Crimes Tribunal at the former Dachau concentration camp in Germany, also known as the Dachau war crimes trials. The trials were conducted in the American postwar occupation zone by the US Army from November 1945 to August 1948. The Kingdom of Italy had a Fascist government from 1922-1943, led by Benito Mussolini. It was closely allied with Nazi Germany and lost control of most of the country in 1943. This currency was issued in 1944 by the provisional government established with Allied support in the non-Fascist region. Not long after the war ended on May 7, 1945, a constitutional referendum was held in June 1946 and Italy abolished the monarchy and became a republic.
    Date
    issue:  1944 November 23
    received:  approximately 1946-before 1948 January
    Geography
    issue: Italy
    Credit Line
    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of Gretchen Davenport
    Markings
    face, upper center right, brown ink : BIGLIETTO DI STATO / A CORSO LEGALE / VNA LIRA [TICKET OF STATE / A LEGAL TENDER]
    face, lower center right, within scroll, brown ink : 1
    face, lower center, brown ink : IL DIRETT. GEN. DEL TESORO F.F. / Ventura [THE DIRECTOR GENERAL / TREASURY]
    face, lower center right, brown ink : V[I?] PER LA CORTE DEI CONTI / Simoneschi [THE COURT OF AUDITORS]
    face, lower right, brown ink : IL CASSIERE SPECIALS / Giovinco [THE CASHIER SPECIAL]
    face, upper left, within border, brown ink : ITALIA [ITALY]
    face, lower left, within border, brown ink : MINISTERO DEL TESORO
    face, series number, upper center and lower right, black ink : 061
    face, serial number, lower center and upper right, black ink : 025932
    face, background, center right, LIRE UNA inside : L .1
    back, upper center, within rectangle, green ink : R. D. L. 20 MAGGIO 1935. N. 874
    back, center, within oval, green ink : LA LEGGE PUNISCE / I FABBRICATORI E / GLI SPACCIATORI / DI BIGLIETTI FALSI
    back, left and right, interlaced with L, green ink : 1
    back, lower center, within rectangle, green ink : D. MIN. 23 NOVEMBRE 1944
    back, right edge, green ink : I. P. S. OFF. CARTE-VALORI [CARDS WORKSHOP-VALUES]
    Contributor
    Subject: Dixie Foster
    Biography
    Dixie Foster was born on September 6, 1912, in Cedar City, Utah, to Solon and Emma Morris Foster. Her father was a bank cashier and she had five siblings. Dixie’s mother passed away on February 20, 1920, and her father remarried that year to Helen Nelson, originally from Sweden. Dixie attended Branch Agricultural College in Cedar City. In 1940, Dixie worked as a court reporter for the Public Service Commission in Salt Lake City.

    The United States entered World War II on December 8, 1941, and declared war on Nazi Germany on December 11. On May 7, 1945, Germany surrendered to the Allies, ending the war in Europe. The 1943 Moscow Declaration had determined that those responsible for war crimes would be tried for those crimes after the war. In addition to the trials of major war criminals by the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg, the Allies held trials in their zones of occupation. A US Military Tribunal was held at the site of the former Dachau concentration camp in Germany to try concentration camp guards and other persons who had committed crimes against Jews and others in the area. The evidence and eyewitness testimonies presented at these trials brought to view the extent of the Nazi concentration camp system. Dixie obtained a position as a civilian court reporter for the US Military Tribunal known as the Dachau war crimes trials. She was present at the following judicial proceedings: a US prisoner of war trial, US v. Heinrich Birnbreier et al, on April 21-25, 1947, a Mauthausen-Gusen camp trial, US v. Karl Glas et al, on August 11-12, a Dachau camp trial, US v. Johannes Berscheid et al, on August 21-25, and a Mauthausen-Gusen trial, US v. Karl Moegle, on September 8-9. Dixie returned to the United States in January 1948. The Dachau Trials adjourned in August 1948. Dixie passed away on April 4, 1998, at the age of 85, in Utah.

    Physical Details

    Language
    Italian
    Classification
    Exchange Media
    Category
    Money
    Physical Description
    Rectangular, offwhite paper currency. The face has an offcenter graphic design in brown ink on a pink background. On the left is a medallion with the left profile portrait of a crowned woman, Italia, bordered by Italian text and framed by scrollwork with rosettes. On the right is Italian text, a small medallion with the numeric denomination 1, engraved signatures, and repeating series and serial numbers in black ink. The back has a graphic background design in green ink with a geometric border. The center has an irregular rectangle with a central oval with Italian text and scrollwork intertwined with a circle on either side; the circles have the numeric denomination 1 interlaced with the letter L. On the upper and lower center are rectangles with text. On the right border is printing information. The currency does not appear to have been circulated.
    Dimensions
    overall: Height: 1.625 inches (4.128 cm) | Width: 3.125 inches (7.938 cm)
    Materials
    overall : paper, ink

    Rights & Restrictions

    Conditions on Access
    No restrictions on access
    Conditions on Use
    No restrictions on use

    Keywords & Subjects

    Administrative Notes

    Provenance
    The paper currency was donated to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 2004 by Gretchen Davenport, the great-niece of Dixie Foster.
    Funding Note
    The cataloging of this artifact has been supported by a grant from the Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany.
    Record last modified:
    2023-08-23 15:30:57
    This page:
    https:​/​/collections.ushmm.org​/search​/catalog​/irn521967

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