Advanced Search

Learn About The Holocaust

Special Collections

My Saved Research




Skip to main content

Cloth work pass with an embroidered black W used to enter and exit the Lvov ghetto

Object | Accession Number: 2009.204.4

Embroidered work pass with a brown border in a plastic holder used by Salomon Goldman to exit and return to the Lvov ghetto in German occupied Poland from 1941-43, for his job as an accountant at a slaughterhouse and tanning factory. He and his wife Gusta and daughter Ilona fled Krakow for Russian controlled Lvov (Lviv, Ukraine), soon after the German invasion in September 1939. When Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941 and occupied Lvov, the Wehrmacht took over the factory. After several months, Salomon and his family were forced to move into the Jewish ghetto. In the spring of 1942, fearing liquidation of the ghetto, Salomon was offered a hiding place by a former employee, Jozef Jozak. His Russian Orthodox wife Rozalie did not want them in their home and they would not hide Ilona because they thought it would be too hard to conceal a lively 2 year-old child. Ilona was smuggled out to the countryside and placed in hiding as a Christian child with a Polish woman, Hania Seremet, paid to hide her. After 6 months, they could no longer pay for her care, and Hania dumped Ilona back with her parents, without the knowledge of the Jozak family. The three had to stay hidden nearly all the time in one small room. The family lived in hiding until the Soviet Army liberated the city in July 1944. When the was ended in May 1945, they returned to Krakow.

use:  1941-1943
use: Lvov (Poland) (historic); L'viv (Ukraine)
Identifying Artifacts
Credit Line
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of Alona Frankel
Record last modified: 2022-07-28 21:51:06
This page: