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Colorful paper doll of a young girl created by a hidden child

Object | Accession Number: 2009.204.33

Paper doll of a young girl with blond braids and red skirt with hearts created by 6 year old Ilona Goldman while living in hiding from 1942-1944 or just after the war. Ilona had few toys and made many small paper dolls with different outfits to play with. After Nazi Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, Ilona, with her parents, Salomon and Gusta, fled Krakow for Soviet controlled Lvov (Lviv, Ukraine). When Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941, the family was forced into the Jewish ghetto where Salomon worked as an accountant at a meat rendering factory owned by the Wehrmacht. In spring 1942, fearing the liquidation of the ghetto, Salomon arranged a hiding place for them outside the ghetto with a former employee, Jozef Jozak. However, he would not hide Ilona because it would be too hard to conceal a lively young girl. Ilona, age 2, was smuggled to the country and placed in hiding as a Christian child with the Polish peasant family of Hania Seremet, who agreed to hide her for a fee. After 6 months, Salomon could no longer pay for her care, so Ilona was brought back to live in their hiding place, without the knowledge of the Jozak family. Ilona had to stay most of this time locked in a closet with only her drawings and the medical textbooks left by a previous tenant. The family lived in hiding until the Soviet Army liberated the city in July 1944. When the war ended in May 1945, they returned to Krakow.

creation:  1944
creation: Lvov (Poland) (historic); L'viv (Ukraine)
Object Type
Paper dolls (lcsh)
Credit Line
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of Alona Frankel
Record last modified: 2021-02-10 09:46:33
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